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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第一章: 序  

2011-07-26 17:54:05|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Invitations to Introduction

            语言学导入

 

一、核心提示 

    空气、阳光、水与语言,使人类得以发达至今,并且无疑还将继续发达下去。语言的力量与作用是什么?倘若人类突然间失去语言能力, 迄今为止的所有文化以及积淀都将变得毫无意义, 而且它们很快就会消融入自然,这时的人类将与狗、狼无别,。换言之,假如人类的文化、文明今天从零开始,只要有语言,什么都将会有。

虽然人类对自己独享的语言这个大自然赐与的礼物,还没有透彻认识,但就一些基本性问题,重大的本质性问题还是达成了一致的看法。 长期的研究和探索还是达成了重大一致。

人类虽具有语言能力,但并不具有特定的交流信息的形式,那是后天选择的结果,所以才有现在成千上万种语言及方言,它们组合排列不同,形态、语音和符号的质与量择取也不同。动物没有先天的语言能力,但它们先天具有特定的交流信息的方式。

人类通有的语言能力体现在四个方面:用任意符号表达客观世界;通过组合有限符号,达到表达无限的世界存在;人类天生具有的语言向性使其能够用具体符号指向并理解抽象意义;具体符号系统可以被学习而传递下去。

     说到底,语言学是关于人与符号运用的研究。根据关注点差异,语言学分微观和宏观:关注语言本身(语音、词汇、语法、语变等)属于前者,而语言与其它学科交叉研究则属于后者。

 

二 概念定义 

 

    langue vs. parole: the language system shared by a “speech community” and the concrete utterances of a speaker.

       语言与言语:一个“语音社团”共有的语言系统;说话人实际说的话语。

   design features: the distinctive features of human language that essentially make human language distinguishable

from languages of animals.

语言特征:从本质上将人类语言与动物的语言区分开的人类语言的区别性特点。

   arbitrariness: the absence of any physical correspondence between linguistic signals and the entities to which they refer.

任意性:语言符号和这些符号所指的实体间不存在任何物质的联系。

   duality: the structural organization of language into two abstract levels: meaningful units (e.g. words) and meaningless segments(e.g. sounds, letters).

  二层性:语言的结构组织可分为两个抽象的层面:有意义的单元(如词语)和无意义的片段(如语音、字母)

 displacement: the ability of language to refer to contexts removed from the speaker’s immediate situation.

 移位性:语音能够指称说话人当时情境以外的语境。

 

function: the role language plays in communication ( e.g. to express ideas , attitudes ) or in particular social situations ( e.g. religious , legal ).

功能:语言在交际(表达观点、态度等)或特定的社会情境(如宗教、法律场合)中所起的作用。

 

Synchronic& diachronic: said of an approach that studies language at a theoretical “point” in time and the study of development of language and languages over time..

   共时与历时:在某一理论上的时间点研究语言的方法和研究语言随时间发展变化的方法。

 

Prescriptive & descriptive: to make authoritarian statement about the correctness of a particular use of language; and to make an objective and systematic account of the patterns and use of a language or variety.

   规定式与描写式:对于语言使用的态度,分为两种,一种是对语言正确用法的权威性规定; 另一种是客观系统地记录一种语言的模式和用法或变化。

phatic communion: said of talk used to establish atmosphere or maintain social contact .

   寒暄:用来创造气氛或维持社会联系的谈话。

 

metalanguage: a language used for talking about language .

  元语言:用来谈论语音的语音。

 

  Competence vs. performance: unconscious knowledge of the system of grammatical rules in a language and the language actually used by people in speaking or writing

    语言能力与语言运用:对于一门语音的语法规则系统的无意识获得的知识; 人们说话写作时实际使用的语音。

 

三、理解简答 Brief answers based on correct understanding

1.       What is language?

           什么是语言?

       Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. Broadly  agreed upon among linguists, this definition covers four important aspects: system, arbitrary,   symbol and vocal. It is a system, since linguistic elements are arranged systematically, rather  than chaotically. Its being a system ensures a common ground on which the users can grasp it and understand it. Arbitrary, in the sense that there is usually without intrinsic connection between a word (dog, for instance) and the thing referred to by the word “dog”. A quotation from Shakespeare would make a good example: “ a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” That is why there are numerous languages in the world, with so many different sounds  and writings, all of which carry more or less the same meanings. It is symbolic, because  words (writings/pictogram) are associated with objects, concepts, actions, by nothing more than convention. In other words, language users employ the sounds or vocal forms to symbolize what they wish to convey. It is vocal, because sound or speech is the primary medium for all  human languages. Writing systems developed much later than the spoken forms. This recognition can be proved by the fact that every normal human can talk in a certain language but not necessarily is able to write.

   语言是人类用来交际的任意性的语音符号的体系。这是语言学家们普遍认同的定义。它包含四个重要概念:系统性,任意性,符号性以及语音性。语言是一个体系,因为语言成分是有条理地而不是凌乱地拼凑在一起。因为语言有体系,使用者就有共同处,便于掌握和理解。说语言是任意性的,意思是,某个词(如“狗”)与它所指的物体之间通常没有本质的内在的固有的联系。援引莎氏的一句名言很能说明,“一朵玫瑰不管它叫什么名字,闻起来都是一样香。”所以,世界上有如此众多不同的语音和书面文图,其含义都略同或相同。说语言是符号,因为词语跟客观世界的物体,行动,想法等的联系是约定俗成的。换言之,人们用一定的音和语言形式去象征地表达和交流事物。语言是有声的,是因为语音或口头对于全人类的语言都是第一性的,文字是第二性的。这种观点可从下列事实得到证明:所有正常人都能讲一种语言,但并不一定能写它。 

 

2. What functions does language have?

    语言有那些功能?

      According to Linguistics: A Course Book by Hu Zhuanglin, language has at least seven  functions;

              phatic (language being used to create a certain atmosphere or keep social contacts);   

              directive (language used to make the hearer do something);

              informative (language used to tell  someone something);

              interrogative (language used to get message);

              expressive (language used    to show the feeling and attitudes of the speaker);

              evocative (language used to create certain  feeling in the hearer);

             and performative ( which means people speak to do things or to perform actions.).

 

         语言至少有七个功能:酬应功能(指运用语言来产生一定的交际氛围或保持友好交际的状态);

                                     指令功能(指语言可用来让听者做事);

                                     信息功能(指语言用来提供信息);

                                     疑问功能(指语言用来获取信息);

                                     表情功能(指语言用来揭示言者的感情或态度);

                                     感染功能(指语言用来引起听者的情绪/反应);

                                     行事功能(指人们说话是在“做事”或采取实际行动这种现象)。

 

3. What are features of human language specified by C. Hockett?

   霍基特阐明了人类语言的哪些特征?

          American linguist Charles Hockett proposed a defining framework in order to distinguish  human language from any animal system of communication and help further understand the nature of language. He specified twelve design features, five of which are discussed in the course book.

        Arbitrariness —— a sign of sophistication only humans are capable of. Animals cannot establish artificial /learned means to express themselves.

        Creativity —— animals are quite limited in the messages they are able to send. They invariably use the same innate manner (noise/body movement) as fixed communication. There are no combinations or changes.

        Duality —— a feature totally lacking in any animal communication. Animals  communicate only in small limited number of sounds or physical movement.

        Displacement —— No animal can “talk” about things removed from the immediate situation. A dog can never purposefully phonetically /vocally tell its owner what happened three days before.

        Cultural transmission —— Details of human language system are taught and learned while animals are born with the capacity to send out certain signals as a means of limited  communication. A bee, for example, is born to be able to tell where it found flowers by certain dancing.

     任意性——只有人类才具有的复杂特性。动物绝无能力建立一套后天的交流方式。

     创造性——动物所能传达的信息极其有限,它们总是以先天的固定方式交流,没有组合,结构也没有变化。

     双层性——动物交际完全不具有这一特征。动物只能用有限的声音或动作来表达。

     移位性——动物都不能“谈论”不在现时现场的事情。一只狗不能有目的地以语音的方式告诉其主人,三天前它发生的事。

     文化传递性——人类语言体系的具体内容是通过教与学而获得的,而动物则生来就能发出某些信号,以进行有限的交流。比如,蜜蜂生来就有能力通过某种舞姿告诉伙伴花在何处。

 

4. What is linguistics?

   什么是语言学?

           Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It studies not just one language of any one  community (tribe or society), but the language of all human beings. A linguist, though not  having to know and use a large number of languages, ought to have a wide experience of  different types of language. His task is not to learn to use any one particular language, but to  investigate how each language is co9nstructed. He is also concerned with how a language varies from dialect to dialect, from class to class, how it changes from century to century, how children acquire their mother tongue, and perhaps how a person learns or should learn a foreign language. In short, linguistics studies the general principles whereupon all human languages are constructed and operate as systems of communication in their societies or communities.

 

           语言学是对语言进行科学性的研究。语言学不仅研究某一社会(部落或社团)的某种语言,而且研究人类语言这个整体。当然,并不等于一个语言学家就必须精通并能灵活应用几种语言。他必须对各种各样的语言有所了解。语言学家的任务不是学习怎样使

  用某一特定语言,而是考查和研究每一种语言的结构如何,产生过程如何,方言差异如何,各阶段变化如何。他应当考查和研究儿童是如何习得母语的,以及个人/成人是如何及应怎样学习外语等问题。总而言之,语言学研究所有的人类语言构造和操作的总原则及一般规律。

 

5. What are the major branches of linguistics? What does each of them study?

      语言学的主要分支学科有哪些?其研究内容是什么?

 

       The study of language as a whole is often called general linguistics. However, a linguist   sometimes is able to tackle only one or two aspects of language at a time, thus the arise of various branches: 

   Phonetics:the study of the phonic medium of language. It is concerned with how speech sounds are produced and classified in all languages of the world.

  Phonology:the study of sound system---the whole of distinctive sounds that occur in a language and the patterns into which they fall. How sounds form systems and function to convey meaning.

  Morphology:How morphemes are combined to form words

 Syntax:How morphemes and words are combined to form sentences

 Semantics:The study of meaning (in abstraction)

 Pragmatics:The study of meaning in context of use

 Sociolinguistics:The study of language with reference to society

 Psycholinguistics:The study of language with reference to the working of the mind

 Applied Linguistics:The application of linguistic principles and theories to language teaching and learning

 

语言学的整体研究统称为普通语言学,包括基本概念,基本理论,基本描述和基本分法等。由于语言的复杂性,一个语言学家通常不能一下子讨论或解决许多问题,他常常把研究重点放在语言的某一方面。因此,语言学逐步产生众多分支,并且还在继续分支下去。所以,下面所列并未囊括其全部。

                        语音学: 研究语音是如何发出并如何分类。

                        音系学: 研究语音是如何形成体系并传达意义的。

                        形态学: 研究词素是如何组合以构成单词的。

                        句法学: 研究词素与词是如何组合以构成句子的。

                        语义学: 是对意义的研究。

                        语用学: 对意义在使用语境中的研究。

                        社会语言学: 对语言与社会的关系的研究。

                        心理语言学: 研究语言与人的心理活动的关系。

                        应用语言学: 研究语言学理论与方法在语言教学与学习中的应用。       

6. Why is linguistics a scientific study of language?

   为什么说语言学是一门科学?

      Linguistics investigates not any particular language, but languages in general. linguistic study is scientific because it is based on the systematic investigation of authentic language  data. No serious linguistic conclusion is reached until after the linguist has done the following  three things: observing the way language is actually used, formulating some hypotheses, and testing these hypotheses against linguistic facts to prove their validity. During the whole  process of his research, a linguist usually follows four principles: exclusiveness, consistency, economy and objectivity.

           语言学研究的不是某种特殊的语言,而是所有的语言。其研究的科学性表现在它是建立在对可靠的语言信息进行系统的研究的基础上。 语言学家在得出任何严肃的结论之前都要先做以下三件事情:

             观察语言实际上被使用的方式:

             形成一些假设;

           用语言现象证实这些假设的可靠性。

        在整个研究过程中,语言学家通常遵循四条原则:穷尽性,一致性,经济性和客观性。

 

7. Of the two major media of communication, writing and speech, which one is primary?

   在两种主要交际媒介中,即口头语和书面语,哪一种是第一性的?

   It is generally held in linguistics that speech is the “primary medium”, writing the secondary”. The former has a history of at least 100,000 years whereas the latter only about 6,000 years. Besides, speech plays a greater role in daily communication。 A larger amount of communication is carried out in speech than in writing and speech is the way in which people acquire their native language. Children, for instance, learn to speak before they learn to write.

语言学家们普遍认同,口头语在人类交流媒介中居第一位,书面居第二。前者有至少十万年的历史,而后者仅有六千年。在日常语言交际中口头语起着更大的作用;口头语比书面语传达的交流信息量大;儿童是以口头语方式习得本族语的。

 

8. What is the difference between langue and parole?

  语言和言语之间的区别是什么?

  First proposed by Saussure, a Swiss linguist, “langue” refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community and refers “parole” to the actual or actualized personal language. Langue is relatively stable and systematic, parole is subject to personal and situational constraints; langue is not spoken by an individual, parole is always a naturally occurring event. What a linguist should do, according to Saussure, is to draw rules from a mass of confused facts.

语言和言语这一对概念首先是由瑞士语言学家索绪尔提出来的。语言是指一个语言社会的所有成员共同使用的抽象语言系统,而言语指的是对于这些抽象语言系统的个人的实际运用。语言是抽象的,相对稳定,是语言使用者必须遵守的规则言语则是具体的,因人而异,千变万化。因此,索绪尔认为,语言学家应从一堆纷乱的语言现象中寻找出规则。

 

9. What is the distinction between competence and performance?

语言能力和言语行为有什么差异?

     In the late 50s, Chomsky proposed this concept. “Competence” refers to the ideal user’s knowledge of rules of his language, that is, of its sound structure, its words and its grammatical rules. A transformational-generative grammar is a model of language competence. “Performance” refers to the actualization of the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language in utterances. It means the actual saying of something, the act of speech itself.

   Competence enables a speaker to produce and understand verbal expressions. A speaker’s           

competence is stable while his performance is often influenced by psychological and social factors. A speaker’s performance does not always equal his supposed competence.

20世纪50年代晚期,美国语言学家乔姆斯基提出这一对概念。语言能力指理想的语言使用者的抽象语言知识,也就是他对该语言的语音结构,词素,和语法规则的知识。例如,生成转换语法。语言运用指理想的语言使用者的语言知识在实际的语言交际中的运用。它指言语行为的本身。

     “语言能力”使人能明白对方的话语,能使他按一定的规则表达。“语言能力”是相对稳定的,而“语言运用”而“语言运用往往受制于心理和社会因素。因此,说话者的“语言运用”并非总等同于他应具有的“语言能力”。

 

10. How is Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole similar to Chomsky’s distinction between competence and performance?

索绪尔对语言和言语的区分与乔姆斯基对语言能力与语言运用的区分有什么相似之处?

 

  Both de Saussure and Chomsky make the distinction between the abstract language system and the actual use of language. Their purpose is to single out the language system for serious study.

索绪尔与乔姆斯基都在抽象的语言体系与实际使用的语言之间作了区分。他们的目的是抽象出语言体系,以便作认真的研究。

 

11. What makes modern linguistics different from traditional grammar?

   现代语言学与传统语法的不同之处在哪里?

Modern linguistics is descriptive, which means its investigations are based on authentic, and mainly spoken language data. Modern linguistics mainly describes and analyses the facts of language.

Traditional grammar is prescriptive; it is based on “high” written language. It tries to lay down rules for “correct” or standard language behavior.

现代语言学是描述性的,其研究以确实可靠的、并主要是口语形式的语言资料为基础。现代语言学主要是如实反映和分析语言的种种现象。

传统语法是规定性的;其研究以“高级的”书面语为基础。传统语法试图规定人们用所谓正确的标准的语言进行交际。

 

12. Is modern linguistics mainly synchronic or diachronic?

  现代语言学是主要是共时性的还是历时性的?

 

Modern linguistics in mainly synchronic, focusing on the present – day language. Unless the various states of a language are successfully studied, it will not be possible to describe language from a diachronic point of view.

 

现代语言学主要是共时性的,重点研究现代语言。除非对语言的各种状态都进行成功的研究,否则很难从历时性角度对语言进行描述。

 

13. Does the traffic light system have duality? Can you explain by drawing a simple graph?

交通灯系统有二层性吗?
    Traffic light does not have duality. Obviously, it is not a double-level system. There is only one-to-one relationship between signs and meaning but the meaning units cannot be divided into smaller meaningless elements further. So the traffic light only has the primary level and lacks the secondary level like animals’ calls. Moreover, no combinations are possible from the three colors to produce new meanings.

交通灯没有二层性。很显然交通灯不是双层的系统。符号与意义之间只有一对一的关系,而意义单元不能进一步分为更小的无意义的成分。因此,交通灯跟动物的叫声一样,只有底层没有上层。此外, 三种颜色也能自由组合形成新的意义或信息.

 

14. How do you comment on dog’s barking?  What do you think of Bertrand Russell’s observation of the dog language: “No matter how eloquently a dog may bark,he cannot tell you that his parents were poor but honest”?   

你如何看待狗吠?对狗的语言有这种评价:无论一只狗叫得多么起劲,它也不能告诉你它的父母虽然贫穷但是诚实。你如何看待这种观点?

Message delivered by a dog comes from instinct and dog understands a message basically from the capacity received from birth or with help of immediate settings. Of course a dog’s survival does not depend on the kind communicative skills human possess. Dogs can not think or express abstract concepts, for these things need language to weave and construct. God would be considered too ruthless if He gave dogs human intelligence without human language!     

 

狗的信息表达仅限于直接环境或本能所及,狗的自燃生存不要求它具备人类意义上的交际;狗不能表达抽象的概念,因为抽象的概念需要语言去编织;狗类如果具备抽象思维的能力,而没有人类意义上的那种语言,或不具备否则上帝就太残忍了!

15. What is the recursive nature of language? Try to write a recursive sentence with brief analysis.

何谓语言的递归性?试写出一个表明递归性的例子并简要分析。

     It is property of language that uses a finite inventory of elements and a finite group of rules to produce an infinite number of sentences.

E.g.:  I met Helen at the Plaza where we used to shop and gave her as gift a book I bought in Saudi Arabia where Islamic faith is strictly observed and practiced.

     递归是语言的一种属性,即用有限的元素和有限的规则创造无限的句子。

例句分析:下划线词语就是元素的重复使用,未划线的部分也有重复性,如句子成分或词性等。

16. Do body language and facial expression share or lack the distinctive properties of human language?

身体语言和面部表情具有人类语言的哪些独特特征?

    Communication can take many forms,such as sign, speech,body language and facial expression. On the whole,body language and facial expression lack most of the distinctive properties of human language such as duality,displacement creativity and so on. Body language exhibits arbitrariness a little bit. For instance, nod means “OK/YES” for us but in Nepal it is equal to saying “NO”. Some facial expressions have non-arbitrariness because they are instinctive such as the cry and laugh of a newborn infant.

交流有多种形式,如符号、口头言语、身体语言和面部表情等。总的来说,身体语言和面部表情缺乏人类语言大部分的本质特点、如二层性、移位性、创造性等。身体语言体现了一点点任意性。比如,点头对我们来说意思是“行”或“是”,但在尼泊尔点头等于说“不”。某些面部表情有非任意性,因为它们是本能的,比如新生婴儿的哭和笑。

17. Can you judge the synchronic or diachronic orientation just from the titles?

你能仅从书名判断著作的研究倾向是历时或共时的吗?

 

     (1)English Examined :Two Centuries of Comment on the Mother-Tongue.

      (2)Protean Shape : A Study in Eighteenth-centuries vocabulary and Usage.

      (3) Pejorative Sense Development in English.

      (4) The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation.

      (5) Language in the Inner City:Studies in the Black English Vernacular.        

                      Answers: Synchronic: (2), (4), (5).    Diachronic: (1), (3).

                        答案:  共时的:(2)(4)(5)  历时的:(1)(3)

 

18. Why is the distinction between competence and performance important in linguistics?
    为什么语言能力和语言运用的区分在语言学中很重要?

    This idea was proposed by Chomsky in his formalist linguistic theories. It is sometimes hard to draw a strict line. Competence is affected by birth and obviously animals do not possess it. In other words, humans share much the same in linguistic competence despite that they differ in skin color, race, sex or society. However, language performance is limited and varied in several ways. Linguistic features are different (number of vowels or consonants, language type, collocations etc), social system, gender etc. One case in point is that a girl usually has more flexible tongue than a boy, or people in open society are communicative than those in less open society…… Therefore it seems that what is left to be done about by education is not linguistic competence but linguistic performance, so to speak, emphasis on communicative functions of language and creation of context to facilitate language learners in enhancing their communicative skills.    

   这一区分是乔姆斯基在他的形式语言学理论中提出的。有时很难将二者区分。语言能力受着先天的影响,动物显然不具备语言。换言之,人类的语言能力大体上相同,不因肤色、种族、性别或社会相异而异;但是语言运用则受着多种因素的制约,如语言特征(元音辅音的数目、类型、搭配等)、社会制度、性别等等。举例说,女孩子比男孩子口齿伶俐,开放社会的人群比封闭社会的人群善言……如此看来,留给教育的事情不是语言能力而是语言运用,也就是重视语言的传递信息功能,努力创造条件提高学生的语言交际能力。

 

19. How do you understand non-arbitrariness in a sentence?

         如何理解语句顺序的非任意性?

    It is no doubt that language is arbitrary, which is the definition of language. However, expression in language is always determined and tested by reality and human experience. For example, metaphor (snow for tree does not make sense to us), or logic (old new knife seems ridiculous) and ease or difficulty of sound combination, and spelling simplification etc.

    As to the order of words a sentence, you can never say sit down and come, for both speaker and listeners know it is against reality.

 

   语言本身的任意性特征无可置疑,那便是符号的性质。然而,语言的表达却始终受着客观世界的检阅或修正:如修辞(如果用雪比喻树木,基本不会被人理解),逻辑(一把崭新的锈刀,基本不被人理解),音组合的发音难易以及拼写简化等。

      至于句子中的词序, 我们谁都不会造这样的句子:“ 坐下,进来。”因为那样的顺序与现实经验背离。

 

20. Do you think that onomatopoeia indicates a non-arbitrary relationship between form and meaning?

       你是否认为拟声词表明了形式与意义之间非任意的关系?

Whether onomatopoeia indicates a non-arbitrary relationship between form and meaning has always been controversial. And it is the last straw for both natural and conventional schools. There are facts to be showed: firstly, differences of onomatopoeia of the same thing among different languages never go beyond recognition by different speakers, at least vowels are there to overlap and make proper match. Secondly, in the course of using languages by humans, arbitrariness showed its facility and  magic and miracle to humans and won more and more frequency over limited and primitive sounds of onomatopoeia. They proceed forward to signs proper. Thirdly, human language never really developed in the direction of imitation of natural sounds but arbitrary and analogical references. Therefore, vowels were reduced or added or modified to cater for social change rather than sound imitation, as a result of which onomatopoeia among different languages sound more and more alike. Lastly but not the least, anthrop-concentric tendency results in a grave illusion: add sounds that do not exist by animals.

  Look at the following onomatopoeias:

       1. Creak:      2. Bang     3. Cuckoo      4.Bleat

  A close examination of 1 and 2 tells how ridiculous it is!  A door can produce the noise such as /k/ and /b/! And another close listening to 3 and 4 reveals that there are no such consonants as /k/ and b/ or ending sounds as /t/ produced by birds or goats! They are just human imaginations. Otherwise animals or inanimate things would be able to combine sounds of consonants and vowels.

 

对于拟声词的形式与意义之间是否是任意或非任意的关系,是个十分古老的争论。 认为拟声词的形式与意义之间只存在必然关系是自然派与惯例派坚持的最后堡垒与依据,所以关乎重大。首先,虽然不同的语言对于相同感受的自然界中的噪音或声音的拟声词呈现不同程度的差异,但不会相差到面目全非或一点相像都没有,至少元音部分有重叠;第二,人类在使用语言的过程中,越来越感到其任意性的魅力与便利,以至于逐渐远离并最终摆脱了原始的极其有限的拟声方式,向着真正符号(sign proper )前进;第三,人类语言的演变从来就不以拟声方式为根基,而是任意与类推,所以,语言的元音辅音的演变也从不去有意识关照发拟声词所需要的合适音,而是始终朝着社会需求方向发展。所以,随着音变的不断演化,原始的拟声词虽然存在,但其发音距离原始音越来越远,以至于今天它们听起来甚至不像拟声词,尤其将它们进行多种语言的比较。第四,人类的自向性使我们犯了一个极其严重的错误:添加了原本没有的音!

请看以下四例拟声词:

           1. Creak: 意为“很久没上油的门打开时发出的声音”

           2. Bang: 意为“突然发出的大声响

           3. Cuckoo: 意为“布谷鸟的叫声”

           4. Bleat: 绵羊、山羊或小牛发出的声音。

细看例1和例2,无论如何弄不懂当一扇门“吱呀”开时,或什么突然弄出巨响时,怎么会冒出 / k / 与 / b /  那些辅音的? 再细看例3和例4,据录音观察,诸如布谷的鸟类或山羊的蹄类动物,根本不能发出辅音的,只能发元音,否则它们就具备了人类的语言,可以组合!

  

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