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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第二章 Speech Sounds 语音  

2011-07-30 00:00:01|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示 

     语音为人类独有,动物只能发出声音。人类有声语言是首要的,书写语言是辅助性的。根据气流处理方式的不同,语音分两大类:辅音和元音。

    任何人类语言,必须同时含有辅音和元音。若只有元音没有辅音,区别性语音的数量就会太少,那样就使得组合的语音串很长,不经济;若只有辅音没有元音,语音传递便太弱,交流局限性太大。辅音肯定是气流受阻的结果,所以,要考虑何处受阻和怎样受阻这两个因素。元音是用来向远方传递,所以气流不受阻,但气流形状进入口腔后由舌位和唇形控制,被人为地改变,否则全人类就都只能发出同一元音!飞禽走兽的情形便是如此。

    语音考虑的对象包括全人类语言,可看作物理的范畴,研究的是物理性质,诸如怎样发音或音质如何等,而音位只针对某种语言,关心的是音与音之间的区别性作用,择取哪些语音以及语音变化对意义的影响等, 可看作是文化的范畴。

    人类各种语言听起来很不一样,主要是因为区别性特征不同,或者说各自突显的方面不同。

   对于超音段的理解,可从音乐性入手。音位是首要的,绝对不可或缺,所以发音极其重要;超音段是次要的,是辅助性的,所以,尽管汉语属于调式语言,北方数省间的方言互懂(调律不同而已),但南方话与北方话不互懂,主要是因为发音不同。最后需指出,声调由音高组成,它不是一个音,而是一段音。

 

二 概念定义

 

Phonetics:It is the study of the phonic medium of language; it is concerned with all the sounds that occur in the world’s language. Speech sounds may be studied in different ways, thus by three different branches of phonetics:

                                    1)      Articulatory phonetics;  2) Auditory phonetics;  3) Acoustic phonetics.

 语音学:它是研究语言的声音媒介的学科,即研究人类语言中所使用的全部语音的学科。语音以从三个不同的角度进行研究:

                                    1)发声学;2)听觉语音学;3)声学语音学。

  voicing: It is an articulatory dimension of speech sound production. It distinguishes meaning in many languages such as English; therefore it is a phonological feature. It is caused by the vibration of the vocal cords.

   浊化:是语音发音一个方面的特征。在如英语等许多种语言中能区别意义;因此它一个是一个音系特征。它是由声带振动时发出的音。

   momophthong vs. diphthong: a monophthong is one vowel sound for which the organs of speech remain in a given position for a period of time. A diphthong is a vowel sound consisting of a deliberate glide. The organs of speech start in the position of one vowel and immediately move in the direction of another vowel.

    单元音和双元音: 单元音发出时,各发音器官处于原位置不动。双元音发出时,有明显的滑动过程,即由一个元音向另一个元音移动,涉及其它发音器官或部位。

 

Phone & phoneme vs. allophones: Phone---a speech sound, a phonetic unit; Phoneme---a collection of abstract sound features, a phonological unit; and Allophones---actual realizations of a phoneme in different phonetic contexts.

  音素——是一个语音,一个语音学单位。

  音位—— 一组抽象语音特征,是一个音系学单位。

  音位变体—— 一个音位在不同语音环境中的具体体现。

phonology: the study of the sound patterns and sound systems of languages. It aims to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages,and to explain the variation that occur.

   音系学: 对各种语言的语音模式和语音系统的研究,其目的是发现语言中支配语音组合方式的规律并解释语音中出现的变化。(注:音系学是针对某种语言而研究的)

speech organs: those parts of the human body involved in the production of speech, also known as “vocal organs”.

  发音器官: 人体参与语言发生的那些部分。(注:只有人类才具有可以发出语言的器官)

suprasegmental features: phonological features above the sound segment level. The major suprasegmental features in English---word stress, sentence stress, intonation. 

 

超音段特征: 在语音切分成分层面之上的音系特征。英语的主要超切分特征有:单词重音,语句重音和语调。

syllable: basic phonetic-phonological unit of the word or of speech that can be identified intuitively. Regarding syllabic structure, it must have a nucleus or peak, which is often the task of a vowel or, possibly that of a syllabic consonant , and often involves an optional set of consonants before and / or after the nucleus .

    音节必须有一个“核心”或音峰,一般由元音承担,也有由具有成音节特征的辅音来起核心作用,通常在核心前后还可有辅音丛的出现。

stress: the degree of force used in producing a syllable. When a syllable is produced with more force and is therefore more “prominent”, it is a “stressed” syllable in contrast to a less prominent, “unstressed” syllable.

重音:指在音节发音时所用的力度。音节发音力度增强时更为突显,形成重音节;与之相对的不那么突显的音节就是非重音节。

 

intonation: the occurrence of recurring fall-rise patterns , each of which is used with a set of relatively consistent meanings , either on single words or on groups of words of varying length .

      语调: 重复出现的升降模式,每个模式都应用于一套相对一致的意义,要么以词为单位,要么以各种长度的词群为单位。

 

tone: a set of fall-rise patterns affecting the meanings of individual words. It is not a point but a section or combination of pitches.

 声调:一套影响字词意义的升降模式。注意:它不是一个点音而是一组音高。

 

     Maximal Onset Principle: a principle for dividing the syllables when there is a cluster of consonants between two vowels, which states that when there is a choice as to where to place a consonant, it is put into the onset rather than the coda. 

   consonant: a major category of sound segments,produced by a closure in the vocal tract, or by a narrowing which is so marked that air cannot escape without producing audible friction.

     辅音: 音段的一个主要分类,由于声道紧闭,或声道变窄程度达到气流无法排出,一旦排出就会产生可闻的摩擦,这样产生的音叫“辅音”。(注:人类所有语言必须兼具辅音和元音,辅音提供众多搭配选项,元音使语音传递较远。二者缺一不可。)

    place of articulation: the point where an obstruction to the flow of air is made in producing a  consonant.

  发音部位:辅音发出时气流受阻的点位

    vowel glide: vowels that involve a change of quality,including diphthongs,when a single movement

      of the tongue is made,and diphthongs,where a double movement is perceived.

   滑元音: 发生音质变化的元音,包括二合元音和三合元音,发二合元音时舌运动一次,发三 合元音时舌运动两次。

   vowel: a major category of sound segments, produced without obstruction of the vocal tract so that air escapes in a relatively unimpeded way through the mouth or the nose.

   元音: 音段的一个主要分类,发声时不发生声道的阻碍,气流可以相对无阻地从口腔或鼻腔排出。

 

Manner of articulation: ways in which articulation of consonants can be accomplished----(a) the articulators may close off the oral tract for an instant or a relatively long period; (b)they may narrow the space considerably; or (c) they may simply modify the shape of the tract by approaching each other.

  发音方式 : 指完成发音过程的方法:①发音器官暂时或较长时间关系

  闭口腔通道;②发音器官使空间明显变窄;③发音器官互相贴近,改变声道的形状。

Cardinal Vowels: a set of vowel qualities arbitrarily defined, fixed and unchanging.

   基本元音: 一套认为确定的、固定不变的质元音。(在此类语音基础上加长、合成、鼻化等,就可获得更多的语音)

 

三、理解简答 Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. How do the three branches of phonetics contribute to the study of speech sounds?

   语音学的三个分支对语音学的研究有什么贡献?

The three branches of phonetics are articulatory, auditory, and acoustic phonetics.

Articulatory phonetics describes the way our speech organs work to produce the speech sounds and how they differ.

Acoustic phonetic studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and reaches the important conclusion that phoneticidentity is only a theoretical ideal.

Acoustic phonetic studies the physical properties of speech sounds, the way sounds travel from the speaker to the hearer.

三个不同分支是发音语音学,听觉语音学和声学语音学。

发音语音学描述了我们的发音器官如何发出语音,以及这些语音为何有所不同。

听觉语音学研究语音的物理性质,并且得出了重要的结论,即语音同一只是理论上的理想。

声学语音学也研究语音的物理性质,但研究的是语音从说话者到听话者之间的传播方式。

 

2. How do phonetics and phonology differ in their focus of study?

语音学和音位学的研究重心有何不同?

Phonology is the study of sound systems, that is, the invention of distinctive speech sounds that occur in a language and the patterns wherein they fall. Minimal pair, phonemes, allophones, free variation, complementary distribution, etc., are all to be investigated by a phonologist.

Phonetics is the branch of linguistics studying the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription.

A phonetician is mainly interested in the physical properties of the speech sounds, whereas a phonologist studies what he believes are meaningful sounds related to their semantic features, morphological features, and the way they are conceived and printed in the depth of the mind phonological knowledge permits a speaker to produce sounds which from meaning utterances, to recognize a foreign “accent”, to make up new words, to add the proper phonetic segments to form plurals and past tenses, to know what is and what is not a sound in one’s language.

音位学研究的是一种语言的整个语音系统及其分布或布局状况,包括某一特定语言里的语音或音位分布和结合的规则或规律。最小对立体,音位,音位变体,自由变异,互补分布等都属音位学研究的对象。

语音学是研究语音的物理属性,即语音产生的方式,并为之提供描述,分类和标音的方法。  语音学家主要关心的是如何产生这些声音,而音位学家研究自己认为有意义的声音,涉及其语义特征、形态特征以及这些语言年语音和它们滋生的词在人们认知过程中的作用等。他还研究如何使人发出有意义的话语声音,辨别外国语音等,构造新词,增加合适的语音片断从而构成复数形式和过去时态,区分母语的语音和外来语音。

 

3. Where are the resonating cavities of a human being contained?

   人类发音的共鸣腔位于什么地方?

  The three resonating cavities are: pharyngeal, oral, and nasal. And among them the mouth is the most important. These three cavities are connected with one another. They are involved closely with place of articulation and manner of articulation. The pharynx stretches from the top of the larynx up to the back of the nasal cavity. And the latter is connected with the mouth. When the soft palate is drawn back and uvula is raised, all air existing from the lungs can only go through the mouth, thus producing non-nasal sounds; if the action is reversed ( with the soft palate and uvula being lowered), nasalized sounds will result.

   人类的发音的共鸣腔包含在三个腔中:咽腔,口腔,鼻腔,其中口腔最重要。它们与发音方法和发音部位有密切关连。这三个腔互相连接,咽腔从喉头的上部延伸到鼻腔的后部,前连口腔。当软腭抬起是,气流从口腔通过,这时发出的音不属于鼻音,当软腭和小舌下垂,关闭口腔通道,气流由鼻腔通过,这是发出的音为鼻音。

 

4. What is the function of the nasal cavity? How does it perform this function?

   鼻腔的作用是什么?它如何发挥作用?

    To nasalized the sounds that are produced. It does this by closing the air passage connecting the oral and nasal cavities so that the air stream can only go through the nasal cavity.

    使所发出的语音鼻化。它是通过关闭口腔和鼻腔之间的通道,使气流仅仅通过鼻腔逸    出而产生的。

 

5. What are the various parts in the oral cavity involved in the production of speech sounds?

    口腔中发音所涉及的各部分有哪些?

    The various parts of the tongue: the tip, the front, the blade, and the back; the uvula; the  soft palate; the hard palate; the teeth ridge (alveolar); the upper and lower teeth; the lips.

   舌的多种不同部位:舌尖,舌前,舌面,舌根;小舌;软腭;硬腭;齿龈;上下齿,双唇。

 

6. How broad transcription and narrow transcription differ from each other? Illustrate with examples.

   宽式音标和严式音标有何区别?举例说明。

  Broad transcription ——one letter symbol for one sound. For instance, the symbol [ l ] is used for the [ l ] in words like leaf [l:f ], feel [f:l ], child [?ai:ld] and health [helθ].

Narrow transcription —— diacritics are added to the one – letter symbols to show the finer differences between sounds. For example, the sound [l] in the above mentioned words differ slightly. The [ l ] in leaf [ l:f ], occurring before a vowel is called a clear [ l ] and the [ l ] in feel [fi:l, occurring at the end of a word or before another consonant is called a dark [ l ] and in narrow transcription the diacritic [ ~ ] is used to indicate it is a dark [ ? ]. Then in the sound combination [helθ] the sound is called a dental [ l ] because it is followed by dental [θ ].

  宽式音标——一个语音由一个字母符号表示的标音法。例如,在“叶”,“感”,“孩”及“康”等的字中的[ l ] 音,均用[ l ]来标示。

严式音标——在单个字母符号上,附加上变音符号,以表示语音间在不同语音环境中的不同发音的细微差别。例如,[ l ]音在上述各字中,标示略有不同。“叶”中的[ l ]出现在一个元音前,故称为清晰[ l ],而其余单词中的[ l ],由于出现在最后或辅音前,所以称之为模糊[ l ],并用浪线[ ~ ]表示。另外,由于[ l ]出现在齿音[θ ]之前,故称为齿化音[ l ]。

 

7. How are the English consonants classified?

     英语的辅音如何分类?

 

   According to the International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005), there are two ways to classify consonants: by place of articulation and by manner of articulation.

  By manner we get 8 types: stops (or plosive); nasal; fricatives; approximant; lateral; trill; tap (or flap); affricates.

  By place we get eleven types: bilabial; labiodental; dental; alveolar; post alveolar; retroflex; palatal; velar; uvular; pharyngeal and glottal.

 

 根据2005年修订的国际音标音标表, 辅音有两种分类方法:通过发音部位和通过发音方式。

  根据发音方式得到8种辅音:塞音或爆破音;鼻音; 擦音;近音; 边音; 颤音; 触音 或闪音; 塞擦音。

  根据发音部位得到11种辅音:双唇音;唇齿音;齿音;齿龈音;齿龈后音; 卷舌音; 硬腭音;软腭音; 小舌音; 咽音及声门音。

 

8. How are the English vowels classified?

    英语的元音如何分类?

  Vowels are the sounds in the production of which no articulators come very close together and the air stream passes through the vocal tract without obstruction.

   The English vowels divided into two large groups: monophthongs (pure vowels) and diphthongs (gliding vowels). The monophthongs are further divided into several types according to different criteria.

    by the height of the raised part of the tongue;

    by the part of the tongue raised;

    by the length of the vowel;

    by the position of the lips;

    by the degree of tenseness.

   在发音过程中,发音器官并不彼此靠近,气流通过声道时,不受任何阻碍,此时发出的音叫元音。英语的元音分为两大类,即单元音和双元音。其中单元音按照不同标准又分成若干类。

    按舌的隆起部分的高度;按舌头隆起的部位;

    按元音的长度;按唇形;按紧张程度。

 

9. What is the phonetic symbol for each of the sound descriptions offered?

    所给语音描述的语音符号是什么?

          1) voiced palatal affricate

          2) voiceless labiodental fricative

         3) voiced alveolar stop

         4) front, close, short

         5) back, semi-open, long

         6) voiceless, bilabial stop

     1)浊音,硬腭音,塞擦音

     2)清音,唇齿音,擦音

     3)浊音,齿龈音,塞音

     4)前元音,闭元音,短元音

     5)后元音,半开元音,长元音

     6)清音,双唇 塞音

答案: 1) [ ? ];   2)[ f ];   3) [d];   4) [ i ]     5) [ ?: ]; 6) [p];

 

10. What are the phonetic features of each of the sounds given?

   所给语音符号的语音特征是什么?

       1) [d ]    2)  [l ]    3) [?]   4) [w]    5)  [ u ]   6)[ ? ]

        Answer: 1) voiced, alveolar, stop

       2) alveolar, liquid, lateral

      3) voiceless, palatal, affricate

      4) glide, labial

      5) back, close, short

      6) front, open

                    答案: 1)浊音,齿龈音,塞音

                                 2)齿龈音,流音,边音

                                 3)清音,硬腭音,塞擦音

                                 4)滑音,唇音

                                 5)后元音,闭元音,短元音

                                 6)前元音,开元音

11.Transcribe the following sentences into normal orthography.
写出下列音标代表的英语句子

                       1)?n ? kli? dei ju kn si: f? mailz

                       2)s?m pi: pl θi?k ??t f?: st impλe?nz kaunt f? ? l?t.

                       1)On a clear day you can see for miles.

                       2) Some people think that first impressions count for a lot.

 

12. Who do you think will be more interested in the difference between [p] and [ph], a phonetician or a phonologist?

    语音学家和音位学家,哪一个更关心 [p]和[ph]之间的区别?

            A phonetician would be more interested in such differences because such differences will not cause differences in meaning.

语音学家更关心[p]和[ph]的区别,因为这种不同并不能引起意义上的不同。

 

13. What is free variation?

    什么是自由变异

         If two sounds occurring in the same environment do not contrast; namely, if the substitution of one for the other does not generate a new word form but merely a different pronunciation of the same word, the two sounds then are said to be in “free variation”. The allophones, for example, do not change meanings or hinder understanding. In fact, no persons pronounce the same phone exactly the same if done two or more times. English is spoken by millions of millions of people in England, U.S.A and other parts of the world, all in free variations. The different “Englishes” are understood well because the variations are within tolerability.

       在同一语音环境或情景中出现的两个音,如果不影响(不形成对照/对比),换言之,倘若将其中一个代替另一个后并未产生新词或新义,那么就认为这两个音处于“自由变异”的情形。音位变异就是这样的情形。事实上,没有任何人发同一音数遍,而能完全一样!英语被世界那么多国家使用,语调不同,发音不同,但不影响交流。这是因为众多的“变异了的英语”都是在不超出“容忍度”的情况下运用的。

 

14.What is assimilation?

       什么是同化现象?

   It is a process by which one sound takes on some or all the characteristics of a neighboring sound, a term often used synonymously with "coarticulation". If a following sound is influencing a preceding sound, it is called regressive “assimilation”; the converse process, in which a preceding sound is influencing a following sound , is known as progressive “assimilation”.

    一个音获得临音某些或全部特征的过程,与“协同发音”同义。如果后面的音影响前面的音,叫做“逆同化”;反之如果前面的音影响前面的音

15.What are distinctive features?

什么是区别特征?

     a means of working out a set of phonological contrasts or oppositions to capture particular aspects of language sounds , first suggested by Roman Jacobson in the 1940s and then developed by numerous other people .

通过找出一套音系的对照或对比特征来概括语音的某些方面的方法。这一理论在20世纪40年代由雅克布逊提出,后来经过多人的发展。

 

16. What is a minimal pair and what is a minimal set? Why is it important to identify the minimal set in a language?   

      什么是最小对立对?什么是最小对立组?为什么区别最小对立组在一种语言中非常重要?

    Minimal pair —— Two sound combinations identical in every way except in one sound element that occurs in the same position in the string.

    Minimal set —— A group of sound combinations with the above feature.

               By identifying the minimal pairs or the minimal set of a language, a phonologist can identify its phonemes.

       最小对立对——除了出现在同一位置的一个语音成分不同外,其它部分都一样的两个语音组合。

      最小对立组—— 一组具有上述特征的语音组合。

      通过分析一种语言的最小对立对或者最小对立组,音位学家能够辩别出它的音位。

 

17.Can you answer the following questions concerning English dialects? In some dialects of English the following words have different vowels, as shown by the phonetic transcription. Based on these data, answer the questions that follow.

      能否回答下列关于英语方言问题?在英语的一些方言中,下列词有不同的元音(如音标所示)。根据这些数据,回答后面的6个问题。
                        A                                B                             C

              bite    [b?it]                bide  [baid]                 tie [tai]

              rice    [r?is]                 rise  [raiz]                 by [bai]

             type   [t?ip]                 bride  [braid]               sigh [sai]  

             wife   [w?if]                wives  [waivz]             die [dai]

            tyke    [t?ik]                 time  [taim]                  why [wai]

 

    1) How may the classes of sounds that end the words in columns A and B be characterized?
2) How do the words in column C differ from those in columns A and B?

3 )Are [?i]and[ai] in complementary distribution ? Give your reasons.

4) What are the phonetic transcriptions of ( a ) life and ( b ) lives ?

5 ) What would the phonetic transcriptions of the following words be ? ( a ) trial ( b ) bike ( c ) lice ( d ) fly ( e ) mine

6 ) State the rule that will relate the phonemic representations to the phonetic transcriptions of the words given above.

Answers:

    l ) All the Sounds that end the words in column A are voiceless ( [ -voice ] ) consonants and all the sounds that end the words in column B are voiced ( [ + voice ] ) consonants . 
           2) All the words in column C are open syllables, 1 . e. they end in vowels .

   3 ) The two Sounds are in complementary distribution because [?i] appears only before voiceless consonants and [ai]occurs before voiced consonants and in open syllables .
           4 ) (a)[l?if]  (b)[laivz]  5 ) (a) [trail]   (b) [b?ik]   (c) [l?is]   (d) [flai]  (e) [main] 6  6) ∕ai∕→[?i] ∕__[-voiced]   [ai]in other places

             A                             B                            C

          bite    [b?it]                bide  [baid]              tie [tai]

          rice    [r?is]                 rise  [raiz]              by [bai]

          type   [t?ip]                 bride  [braid]           sigh [sai]  

          wife   [w?if]                wives  [waivz]         die [dai]

          tyke    [t?ik]                 time  [taim]             why [wai]

 

                1)      A栏和B栏的词尾发音在分类上有什么不同?

                2)      C栏中的词和A、B两栏的词有什么不同?

                3)      [?i]和[ai]是否处于互补分布?为什么?

                4)      life和lives的语音记音是怎样的?

                5)      下列词的语音记音是怎样的?

                  (a)       trial(b)bike(c)lice(d)fly(e)mine

                6)       写出联系上述词音位表达式和语音表达式的规则。

 

           回答:                             

            1)      A栏词的最后一个音都是不带声辅音([-voice], B栏词的最后一个音都是带声辅音([+voice])。

             2)      C栏的词都是开音节,即节尾都是元音。

             3)      这两个音属于互补分布,因为[?i]只出现在不带声辅音之前,而[ai]出现在带声辅音之前和开音节中。

              4)      (a)[l?if]  (b)[laivz]

              5)  (a) [trail]   (b) [b?ik]   (c) [l?is]   (d) [flai]  (e) [main]

              6) ∕ai∕→[?i] ∕__[-带声]   [ai]其他位置

 

 

18. What is complementary distribution?

        什么是互补分布?

   When two sounds never occur in the same environment, they are in “ complementary distribution”. For example, the aspirated English stops never occur after [ s], and the unaspirated ones never occur initially sounds in complementary distribution may be assigned to the same phoneme. The allophones of [ l ], for instance, are also in complementary distribution. The clear [ l ] occur only before a vowel, the voiceless equivalent  [ l ] occur only after a voiceless consonant.

 它指两个音从不出现在同一语音环境里的状况。例如,英语里的送气爆破音从不可能出现于[ s]音之后,不送气的爆破音也不可能出现于音节之首。处于互补的音是作为同一音位看待。例如,[ l ]的不同音素。清晰的[ l ]只出现在元音前,而[ l ]的清音形式只出现与清辅音之后。

 

19. What are the definitions of the sequential rule, the assimilation rule, and the deletion rule?

    什么是序列规则?什么是同化规则?什么是省略规则?

   Sequential rule —— rule governing the combination of sounds in a particular language. For example, if an English speaker is asked to arrange the sounds p,r,h,o, he will not produce the combinations like rohp, because “h” is not to be followed immediately by ‘p”. His knowledge of sequential rule will get him a combination like this: roph or horp.

  Assimilation rule —— rule assimilating one sound similar to the following one by copying one of its phonetic features. One good example will be nasalization. Take “trei” for illustration. When a sound “n” is added to it, thus resulting [trein], then the vowel [ ei ] will be nasalized.

  Deletion rule —— rule governing the deletion of a sound in a certain phonetic context although it is represented in spelling. Generally this rule result form natural situation. For example, for an English speaker, it would be impossible to pronounce every single letter sound in “sign” as in one word. Therefore “g” is silent. “g” in significant is sounded.

序列规则——在一种特定语言中制约语音组合的规则。例如,让一个讲英语者排列p,r,h,o,,他不会产生这样的组合:rohp,因为 “h” 后面不能跟“p”这个音。他的序列知识会使他产生这样的组合:roph或 horp。

同化规则—— 一个语音通过“模仿”紧随其后的语音的一个特征而变得与其相似的规则。其中很好的例子当属鼻化音。如“trei”一音,倘若后面加上“n”,该音便会带鼻音。

省略规则——制约一个语音虽然在拼写上有体现但在某一语音环境中却不发音的规则。通常这是自然选择的结果。比如,对于讲英语的人,不可能发出“sign”里的“g”音,但在significant里的“g”却没问题,是因为它后面的音离开了它去组成另一音节。

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