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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第三章 Lexicology  语词  

2011-07-30 00:23:30|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示 

  “词”讨论的是 “表意” 可把握的单位切分,既包括口头语言,也包括书写符号。每种语言的构成因素都非常有限。这是因为不可能有这样的语言:含一千个不同的字母,一万个不同的音位!无论何种类型的语言(拼音、象形、黏着、孤立、屈折等),其音位是靠区别性特征来确定的,其词是依赖概念和独立性来确定的。音位没有信息含义,而语素含有信息。

   人类使用语言表达时,使用的单位是概念。所以,当人们听到某些声音就产生反应,是因为脑海出现了映像、形象,它们与现实世界相对应。

   在交流中,人们关注的不是个别语音、语符,也不是一串语音或语符,而是关注概念。概念才有意义。但是,含有语义的音、音串、符号串等不一定都是词,因为有的不能独立存在,诸如汉语的“纬”字,左边的部分含着意义,但不能单独成字,只是黏着语素;右边的部分既有意义,又可独立成字,所以它既是语素也是词,因为它含着概念。

    黏着语素在意义上不像词那么具体独立,而是关联性的,模糊的。在形式上只能依附而非独立存在。如英语中的“bookmarker” 一词,三个语素 book,mark 和 er,但只有前两个是词,后一个是语素。若继续分拆,就变成字母,如同汉字细拆后就变成笔划一样。

    由于词汇在产生之初的人为性,注定其时空的局限性,甚至还有先天性缺陷。人类社会的变迁迫使词汇全方位的变化以便于自身生存。

   在此,有必要对汉语和英语作简要比较。汉语是单音节语言,这意味着它的某些发展潜势:音与形容易脱离;语言的音乐性要求词是多音节的,所以汉语词汇由单字向双音字发展,如“美”加“丽”,“开”加“展”等,或者重复单字,如妈妈、低低等;汉语词汇在音上不能再切分,只能在字符上分,所以汉字里面可含有语素,如“字”中有宝盖头和 “子”;同音字多,所以引入声调来区别不同的意义。英语是多音节语言,这也意味着它的某些发展潜势:英语单词可以再切分;信息含载在形式中(时态、语态、性、数等),形与音趋向紧密。

二、概念定义 

 

 Morpheme: the smallest unit in terms of relationship between expression and content, a unit which cannot be divided without destroying or altering the meaning, lexical or grammatical. In order to understand further, some words are given below for analysis.

1)  description  2)underdeveloped  3)anstomy

4)radiation    5)geography       6)photosynthetic

7)philarmonic   8)defrosted     9) refreshment

10)demobilized  11) conducting  12)suppression

语素: 词态学研究的最小的意义单位,它相对于表达形式和内容而言。如果再分下去,就必然伤害意义(包括词义或语法意义)。为了进一步理解,下面给出一些词,并试作分析。

答案:

       1)  de-script-tion  2)under-develop-ed  3)ana-tomy 

      4)radia-tion   5)geo-graph-y  6)photo-synthe-tic

      7)phil-harmon-ic  8)de-frost-ed  9)re-fresh-ment

     10)de-mobil-iz-ed  11)con-duct-ing  12)sup-press-ion

 

   allomorph: It is the variation of the same morpheme, like allophones. The variants of the  plurality “s” make the allomorphs thereof in the following words: mouse-mice, ox-oxen, tooth-teeth.

   语素变体: 顾名思义,语素变体如同因为变体,属于同一语素。明显的例子是名词的复 数。如:单数“鼠” 变成“多只鼠”, 单数“牛”变成“多头牛”, 单数“牙齿”变成另一形态的“多齿”等。

   root vs. stem: root vs. stem: A root is often seen as part of a word; it can never stand by itself although it bears clear, definite meaning; it must be combined with another root or affix to form a word. For example, bio-, meaning life, en-, meaning make, and fer-, meaning iron.  

   A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an affix can be added. It may be the same as, and in other cases, different from, a root. A stem can be a root, a free morpheme, or derived form itself, e.g. tolerate-toler-+ate; disagree-dis+agree; carelessness-careless-+ness.

词根与词干: 词根常常是某个词的一部分。虽然词根有明确无误的意义,它却不能独立存在,而必须同其它词根或词缀相结合成为词。如:bio( 意思是“与生命关联的” ) ,en ( 使、让 ), fer ( 铁的 ) 。

词干可以是任何语素或语素结合体。有时它与词根没区别。词干可以是词根、自由语素或派生语素,如tolerate 由toler加ate 构成; disagree 由dis加agree构成, Carelessness 由careless 加ness 构成等。

 

open vs. close classes: In English, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs take up the largest part of the vocabulary. They are “open class words”, since we can regularly contribute more  lexical entries to these categories. The other syntactic types are, for the most part, closed class words whose number of is hardly changeable or increasable, such as prepositions, conjunctions articles, etc.

放类词与封闭类词:开放型词类指名词,动词,形容词和副词,占总词汇的一大部分。之所以称它们为开放性,是因为此类词的数量总在变化,一部分消亡,新的词汇随着社会的发展而不断汇入。另一类是封闭型词汇,如介词,连词,冠词等,因为它们的数量,形态,含义等基本不变化。

inflection: is the manifestation of grammatical relationship through the addition of inflectional affixes such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and cases to which they are attached.

 屈折(变化):通过添加屈折词缀,如数,人称吗,限定词,体和格等来表示某词语法关系的变化。

compound: refers to the words that consist of more than one lexical morpheme or the way to joint two separate words to produce a single form, such as classroom, mailbox, fingerprint, sunburn. In terms of the word class of compounds, there are Noun compounds (e.g. daybreak), Verb compounds (e.g. brainwash), Adjective compounds (e.g. dutyfree) and Preposition compounds (e.g. throughout).

复合词:是指那些由一个以上词汇语素构成的词,或者由两个独立的词连接起来构成新的形式,例如,classroom(教室),mailbox(邮箱),fingerprint(指纹),sunburn(晒黑)。复合词分为名词复合词(如:daybreak黎明),动词复合词(如:brainwash为……洗脑),形容词复合词(如:dutyfree免税的)和介词复合词(如:throughout遍及)。

lexeme: in order to reduce the ambiguity of the term word, lexeme is postulated as the abstract unit underlying the smallest unit in the lexical system of a language which appears in different grammatical contexts. For example: “write” is the lexeme of the following set of words: write, writes, wrote, writing, written.

  词位:为了减少“词”这一术语的含糊性,词位被假定为语言词汇系统中潜在于最小单位之下的抽象单位,而最小单位是在不同语法环境中出现的。

grammatical word: refers to those which mainly work for constructing group, phrase, clause, clause complex, or even text, such as, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns. Grammatical words sever to link together different content parts. So they are also known as Functional Words.

  语法词:是指那些主要用来构建词组、短语、从句、复合句、甚至篇章的词。例如连词、介词、冠词、代词。语法词把不同内容的部分连接在一起,因此也称功能词。

 

    lexical word: refers to those which mainly work for referring to substance, action and quality, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Lexical words carry the main content of a language. Lexical words are also known as Content Words.

    词汇词:是指那些主要用来指代物质,动作和性质的词。例如名词、动词、形容词和副词。词汇词承载着语言中的主要内容,因此词汇词也叫作实义词。

    lexicon: refer to the whole vocabulary of a language as against grammar of a language.

   词汇:是指一门语言中的所有的词汇,和语法是相对的。

   blending: is a relatively compels form of compounding, in which two words are blended by jointing together the initial part of the two words. For example, telephone+exchange→telex;transfer+resister→transistor

    整合法:是一种相对复杂的混合形式,由两个单词混合而成,一般是把第一个单词的开头部分和第二个单词的最后部分连接起来,或者是把两个单词的开头部分连接起来。例如:telephone+exchange→telex;transfer+resister→transistor

    loanword: a process in which both form and meaning are borrowed with only a slight change, in some cases, to the phonological system of the new language they enter. For instance, au pair,encore,coup d’etat and other forms from French.

   借词:借词的形式和意义都是借用的,有时为了适应新语言的音位系统,可以有些细小的改变。例如,英语从法语中借用了au pair,encore,coup d’etat;意大利语中的alfresco(在户外);汉语中的tea;俄语中的sputnik和美国印第安语中的moccasin(一种鞋子)。

   loanblend: is a process in which part of the form is native and the rest has been borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed. For example, the first parts of the words coconut and China-town came from Spanish and Chinese respectively, but the second parts are of the English origin.

     混合借词:是指借词的一部分来自本国语,另一部分借自外来语,但是意义全都是借来的。例如,单词coconut和China-town第一部分分别借自西班牙和中国,但第二部分则来源于英语本身。

 

     loanshift: is a process in which the meaning is borrowed, but the form is native. For example, the Italian ponte means “bridge” in the literal sense, when it refers to a type of card game, the meaning was borrowed from English.

    转移借词:转移借词的意义是借用的,但是形式是来自本国语。例如,bridge是一个英语单词,但当它的意思是指一种纸牌游戏时,它是借用意大利语的ponte。

 

三. 理解简答   Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What does morphology study?

    形态学研究的是什么?

It studies the internal structure of words and the rules that govern their formation. The morphology is generally divided into two fields: inflectional morphology and derivational morphology.

形态学旨在研究单词的内部结构以及制约单词构成的规则。它分为两个支学科:屈折词态学和派生词态学。

 

2. What are, with examples, the various types of morpheme used in English?

   英语中有哪些所用语素?举例说明。

        Free morpheme e.g. friend, desk, name, book;

         Bound morpheme: roots and affixes

               (1) Roots e.g. fin-, spect-, -cend

                (2) Affixes: inflectional and derivation

                       Derivational: prefix and suffix

                       Inflectional affixes: -ing, -ed, -(e)s

                       Prefixes: un-, dis-, de-, en-

                       Suffixes: -ly, -less, -tion, -ize

            自由语素,例如, friend, desk, name, book;

            黏着语素:词根和词缀。

            词根,例如,fin-,spect-,-cend

            词缀:进一步分为屈折词缀和派生词缀。

                       派生词缀:前缀和后缀。

                       屈折词缀:-ing,-ed,-(e)s

                       前缀:un-,dis-,de-,en-

                       后缀:-ly, -less,-tion,-ize

 

3. What are the main inflectional affixes in English? What grammatical meaning do they convey?

      英语中有哪些主要屈折词缀?它们表达什么语法意义?

                   -(e)s——plural number

                   -(e)s——third-person singular present tense

                   -(e)d——past tense

                   -ing——proressive aspect

                   -er——comparative degree

                   -est——superlative degree

                    -’s——possessive case

                    -(e)s-复数

                    -(e)s-现在时第三人称单数

                     -(e)d-过去时

                      -ing-进行体

                      -er-比较级

                      -est-最高级

                       -’s-所有格

 

4. Can you find out the meaning of the following roots in English and give two or three words that contain each of them?

    能否指出下列英语词根的含义并分别举出两三个包含这些词根的单词?

                  hydro; chron;  demo;  dur;  agr;  kilo;  nym; ped;  rupt;  gress;  poly;  syn;

     Answer:

                    Hydro chron demo dur agr kilo nym ped rupt gress poly syn

                    hydro——water e.g. hydraulic, dehydrate

                    chron——time e.g. chronological, chronicle

                    demo——people e.g. democracy, demography

                    dur——lasting e.g. during, durable

                    agr——farming e.g. agriculture, agrarian

                     kilo——one thousand e.g.kilometer, kilogram

                    nym——name e.g. pseudonym, antonym

                    ped——foot e.g. centipede, impede

                    rupt——breaking e.g. rupture, abrupt

                   gress——movement e.g. progress, digress

                    poly——various e.g. polygon, polyglot

                   syn——identical e.g. synchronic, sympathy

 

                 hydro-水,例如:hydraulic (水力/压的),dehydrate(使脱水)

                chron-时间,例如:chronological (近年代顺序排列的),chronicle(编年史)

                demo-人民,例如:democracy,demography(人口统计学)

               dur-持续,例如:during,durable(持久的)

               agr-耕作,例如:agriculture, agrarian(耕地的)

               kilo-一千,例如:kilometer,kilogram

               nym-名称,例如:pseudonym(假名),antonym(反义词)

               ped-足,例如:centipede(蜈蚣),impede(阻止)

               rupt-破裂,例如:rupture(裂开),abrupt

               gress-运动,例如:progress,digress(离题)

               poly-多方面的,例如:polygon(多边形),polyglot[(通晓数种语言的(人)]

               syn-完全相同的,例如:synchronic(共时的),sympathy

 

 

 

5. What are the morphological rules that govern the use of the given derivational affixes?

    所给屈折词缀的用法的形态学规则是哪些?

Example: -er,This suffix is added to a verb to form a noun indication the agent that carries out the action, e.g. write-writer

-ant –ment –sub –en en- -ee –ful –some –wise un-

 

例如:-er这个词缀加在动词后构成名词,该名词的意义是指完成这个动作的人,例如,write-writer-ant –ment sub- -en en- -ee –ful –som –wise un-

          Explain:

                -ant   suffix added to form a noun indication the agent e.g. assistant

                -ment  suffix added to a verb to form its corresponding noun e.g. development

               sub-   preifx added to an adjective to form another adjective to indicate a lesser degree e.g. substandard

              -en    suffix added to an adjective to form a verb to indicate the acquisition of the quality denoted by the adjective e.g. darken

               en-    prefix added to an adjective to form a verb to indicate the acquisition of the quality denoted by the adjective e.g. enrich

              -ee    suffix added to a verb to form a noun indicating the  recipient of the action  denoted by the verb e.g. employee

              -ful    suffix added to a noun to form an adjective indicating the quality denoted by the noun e.g. plentiful

              -some  suffix added to a noun to form an adjective indicating the quality denoted by the noun e.g. quarrelsome

              -wise   suffix added to a noun to form an adverb meaning “with regard to the area indicating by the noun” e.g. careerwise

              un-    prefix added to an adjective to indicate the absence of the quality indicated by the adjective e.g. unemployed

 

          -ant   后缀,加在动词后构成名词指实施动作的人。例如,assistant

           -ment 后缀,加在动词后构成相应的名词。例如,development

           sub-   前缀,加在形容词后构成另一个表示较低的程度的形容词。例如,substandard

           -en   后缀,加在形容词后构成表示获得形容词所指的那种性质的动词。例如,darken

            en-   前缀,加在形容词后构成表示获得形容词所指的那种性质的动词。例如,enrich

            -ee   后缀,加在动词后构成名词,指这个动词所表示的动作的接受者。例如,employee

             -ful   后缀,加在名词后构成表示具有名词所指的性质的形容词。例如,plentiful

            -some   后缀,加在名词后构成表示具有名词所指的性质的形容词。例如,quarrelsome

            -wise    后缀,加在名词后构成副词,意思是“有关名词指的这个领域”。例如,careerwise

             un-     前缀,加在形容词前,表明缺乏形容词所体现的性质。例如,unemployed

 

6. What is collocation?

       什么是搭配?

    This is a term used in lexicology by some linguists to refer to the habitual co-occurrences of individual lexical items. In essence, it is similar to “horizontal relations” described by Saussure about syntax, or “mutual expectancy” in semantic. Different languages have their own different rules of collocations. In English, one can safely “John committed a mistake/offence.” Fortunately, Chinese has its equivalent expressions: “John committed a  mistake/offence.” This means that the word carries a negative sense, and should be employed together with words containing negative sense. One does not say “He committed a heroic deed”. In other situations, however, different languages have different collocations. For instance, “By reading her face, John knew Jane had had a bad day.” The use of the word “reading”, if in Chinese, would not be acceptable in the same semantic sentence, except to seek originality.

“搭配”是语言学家指一个词与某个或某些词一起使用(即共现)的倾向性。它实质上是索绪尔在句法上讲究的“横组合关系” 或 语义学上讲的互相预见性。不同的语言有不同的搭配规则。用英语人们可以安全地说“约翰犯了错误/法”。汉语里刚好有十分对应的说法。英语和汉语,都不能讲:约翰犯了英雄行为。当听到“犯”时,就知道下文不妙。英文可以讲:读她的脸后,约翰明白珍尼一天不顺心。但汉语在同一语境中的该词搭配讲不通,除非想在语言上猎奇。

 

7. What are the main features of the English compounds?

   英语复合词的主要特征是什么?

Orthographically a compound can be written as one word, two separate words with or without a hyphen in between. Syntactically, the part of speech of a compound is determined by the last element. Semantically, the meaning of a compound is idiomatic, not calculable from the meanings of all its components. Phonetically, the word stress of a compound usually falls on the first element.

在拼写上,一个复合词既可以写成一个词,也可以写成两个词,中间有没有连字符都可以。在句法上,复合词的词性是由最后一个成分决定的。在语义上,复合词的意思是具有习语的特征,而不是几个组成部分的意思的相加。

 

8. How to explain the formation and meaning of the following compounds?

    如何解释所给复合词的构成及意思?

Example: nightcap, noun formed by combining two nouns, meaning a drink one takes before going to bed

cat’s paw; tablecloth; green-eyed; green horn ;update ;jet lag; bootleg ;

built-in; cockpit;good-for-nothing

 

例如:nightcap:由两个名词构成的名词,意思是临睡前喝的饮料。

Answer:

cat’s paw:  noun formed by combining two nouns, meaning a person used by another as a tool

tablecloth:  noun formed by combining two nouns, meaning a piece of cloth spread on a table to cover it

green-eyed:  adjective formed by combining an adjective and an –ed form, meaning jealous

green horn:  noun formed by combining an adjective and a noun, meaning a person not experienced for a job or occupation

update:     verb formed by combining an adverb and a verb, meaning to bring something up to date

jet lag:     noun formed by combining two nouns, meaning the feeling of fatigue caused by traveling in a jet plane crossing different time zones

bootleg:     verb (also noun) formed by combining two nouns, meaning “to make, carry, or sell illicit goods”

built-in:    adjective formed by combining a past participle with a preposition, meaning “made as an integral part”

cockpit:   noun formed by joining two nouns, meaning the compartment in an aircraft where the pilot or the crew sit

good-for-nothing: adjective formed by joining an adjective, a preposition, and a pronoun, meaning irresponsible worthless

答案:

cat’s paw由两个名词组合成的名词,意思是“一个被别人当成工具的人”。

tablecloth  由两个名词组合成的名词,意思是“一块铺

桌子上盖桌子的布”。

             green-eyed 由一个形容词和一个-ed形式组合成的形容词,意思是“嫉妨的”。

             green horn由一个形容词和一个名词组合成的名词,意思是“生手、没有经验人”。

             update   由一个副词和一个动词组合成的动词,意思是“使跟上时代”。

            jet leg   由两个名词组合成的名词,意思是“乘喷气式飞机跨过不同时区后产生的疲劳感。”

            Bootleg  由两个名词组合成的动词(也是名词),意思是“制作、携带、贩卖违禁的物品”。

            built-in  由一个过去分词和一个介词组合成的形容词,意思是“作为构成整体所必需的一部分而被制作的”。

            cockpit 由两个名词组合成的名词,意思是“飞机上飞行员和乘务员坐的机舱”。

             good-for-nothing由一个形容词、一个介词和一个代词组合成的形容词,意思是“不负责任的或无价值的”。

 

9. How to understand word/lexicon/lexeme/vocabulary respectively?

       如何理解字词/词语/义素/词汇量?

     “Word” is the most commonly referred to by people, therefore its meaning is inevitably vague and elusive. It may be defined as “ the smallest unit of language that people can understand if it is said or written on its own.”. A “desk” is a word in English but “de or dis” is not, even it is a meaningful morpheme.  “Lexicon” is more or less the same as vocabulary except that in technical sense, it deals with the analysis and creation of words, idioms and collocations. A lexeme is the most technical term among these forms. It is the abstract unit which refers to the smallest unit in the meaning system that can be distinguished from other smaller units. For instance, the word “break” has several forms such as broke, broken, breaking, and it would have more than ten different forms if in French,yet it has only one lexeme. “vocabulary ” refers to the whole load of words used/understood by a person.

     “字词”是被人们用的最多的一种表示意义的单位,因而其含义也难免模糊,不易定义。可以将它定义为:“独立说出或写出时能被人们理解的最小的语言单位”。“桌子”是个字词,但两点水“冫”或 “冖”不是字词,尽管它有意义。“词语”的意思接近“词汇”,只是它偏重于对字词,习语和惯用搭配的分析及创造。“义素”恐怕是这些概念表达中最学究的字眼。它是一个抽象的概念,指语言的意义体系中能与其它更小的单位相区别的最小的单位。如break一词,有三四种形态,若是法语,形态会更多,但break只有一个义素,即break。词汇量通常指一个人运用或能理解的词汇总数量。

 

10. Can you give the percentage of function words in this paragraph? Read the following paragraph and list a1l the function words you can find (include all forms of be as function words)

     能否给出这段话中功能词的百分比?阅读下面一段话,列出所有能找到的功能词(包括be作为功能词的所有形式)。

 She was a small woman, old and wrinkled when she started washing for us , she was already past seventy . Most Jewish women of her age were sickly, weak, broken in body but this washwoman, small and thin as she was , possessed a strength that came from generations of peasant ancestors . Mother would count out to her a bag of laundry that had accumulated over several weeks. She would lift the heavy bag, load it on her narrow shoulders, and carry it the long way home.

Answer:

    The function words in this passage include: she, was , a , and ,when,she , for , she , was , past , of , her , were ,in , but , this , and , as , she , a , that , from , of , would , to , her , a , of , that , had , over , she , would , the , it , on ,her , and , it , and the . Altogether there are 85 words in this passage, and 40 of them are function words. Then the percentage of function words in this passage is 40/85 ≈7 %.

    回答:  这段话中的功能词包括:she,was,a,and,when,she,for,she,was, past,of,her,were,in,but,this,and,as,she,a,that,from,of,would, to,her,of,that,had,over,she,would,the,it,on,her,and,it,and the。在这段话中,共有85个词,其中功能词40个。所以这段话中功能词的百分比是40/85≈47%。

11. Determine the original term from which the following words were back – formed.

        根据下列的逆构词确定其最初的形式。


             ( a ) asset ( b ) burgle ( c ) enthuse ( d ) greed ( e ) hush ( f ) automate ( g ) donate ( h ) escalate ( i ) homesick ( i ) peddle ( k ) diagnose ( l ) tuit ( m ) amusing ( n ) loaf ( o ) self 一destruct ( p ) attrit ( q ) hairdress ( r ) emote ( s ) drowse ( t ) frivol

 

Answers:

       ( a ) assets ( b ) burglar ( c ) enthusiasm ( d ) greedy ( e ) husht ( f ) autornation

       ( g ) donation ( h ) escalator ( i ) homesickness ( J ) peddler ( k ) diagnosis

       ( l ) intuition ( m ) amuse ( n ) loafer ( o ) self-destruction ( p ) attrition

       ( q) hairdresser ( r ) emotion ( s ) drowsy ( t ) frivolous

回答:

          (a) asset         (b) burgle         (c) enthuse        (d) greed

          (e) hush         (f) automate       (g) donate         (h) escalste

          (i) homesick      (j) peddle         (k) diagnose       (l) tuit

          (m) amusing      (n) loaf           (o) self-destruct    (p) attrit

         (q) hairdrcss      (r) emote         (s) drowse         (t) frivol

 

12. How do you classify the following words?  as loanwords ( LW ) , loanblends ( LB ) , loanshifts ( LS ) or loan translation ( LT )

如何将下列外来词语进行分类?分出借词(LW),混合借词(LB),转移借词(LS),翻译借词(LT)。
  

               booby trap; coconu;t loan-word; monk; firewater; free verse;  war paint; yankee

               LW :monk ; loanword LB : booby trap ; coconut
                       LS : Yankee        LT : firewater ;free verse ; war paint

      回答:

                           借词:monk;loan-word

                           混合借词:booby trap;coconut

                           转移借词:Yankee

                           翻译借词:firewater;free verse;war paint

13. Can you identify the immediate etymological source of the following words? (For example, the immediate source of “meaning” is French,although the more remote source is Latin )

         能否确定下列词语的直接语源?(如,“meaning”的直接语源是法语,尽管它更远的来源是拉丁语)


            ( a ) air ( b ) barbecue ( c ) bungalow ( d ) Cola ( e ) gusto ( f ) babel ( g ) buffalo ( h ) cocoa ( i ) costume ( i ) ill ( k ) mule ( I ) decreed ( m ) revolution ( n ) benevolent ( o ) lie ( p ) topic ( q ) subject ( r ) theme ( s ) wind ( t ) datum

   回答:

            ( a ) Middle English ( b ) American Spanish   ( c ) Hindi and Urdu ( d ) African origin
                    ( e ) Spanish ( f ) Hebrew ( The Bible )  ( g ) Italian ( h ) Spanish 
                    ( i ) French ( j ) Middle English   ( k ) Middle English ( 1 ) Middle English
                     ( m ) Middle English ( n ) Middle English   ( o ) Middle English ( p ) Latin
                    ( q ) Middle English ( r ) Mlddle English   ( s ) Middle English ( t ) Latin

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