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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第四章 Semantics 语义学  

2011-07-30 08:37:26|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示

 

在语言学中,语义是最古老的研究对象。没有意义,语言便没了价值,也就没有了利用之必要。由于人类的智能在语言方面的表现与发挥, 语义从来都是任意的。

语言学的语义学研究目的在于找出语义表达的规律性、内在解释、不同语言在语义表达方面的个性以及共性。

意义具有构成的诸要素,所以,语义总是呈现一片而不是一点。例如,“母亲”这个意义含有女性、成年、生育等要素,构成字面意思,进而包括人的经验知识和逻辑判断的引申意义,如将土地河流比作母亲等。

语义研究是以符号与其所指这个最本质的对应关系为基础的。 从符号的指向结果观察, 意义可分为两类: 物质性意义(referent)和逻辑性意义(sense)。前者的所指具有实在性,如桌椅、手脚等,对其理解可依赖特征对应;后者更具空泛性和相对性,如魅力、现象、高矮、但是等,对其理解须建立在对概念的比较和归纳之上。

从符号的指向路径观察,意义可分为直达意义(conceptual)和外接意义(associative)。任何词语都有核心意义或原本意义,但它们从来不是封闭的,而是留有对外接口,随时供语义发展连接与开拓。人类语言中更多的意义是外接意义。

从符号的使用排列观察,意义可分词汇的,句子的。 词汇意义一般都是简单的、单个概念的、无联系的,句子一般都是复杂的、多个概念的,有联系的。句子意义并不是各个概念的叠加,如“他走了进来,坐下。”和“他坐下,走了进来。”这两句, 意义大不一样。句子意义受到经验和逻辑的检验。

逻辑学的语义学是对一个逻辑系统的解释,着眼点在于真值条件,不直接涉及自然语言。此外,逻辑式对于最后的语义解释非常重要。

 

二、概念定义

 

  Semantics: It refers to the study of the communication of meaning through language. While syntax and phonology study the structure of expressive possibilities in language, semantics studies the meaning that can be expressed. Linguistically, there have been a number of views concerning the study of meaning and the major ones include: the naming theory, the conceptualist view, the contextualist view, and the behaviorist view.

语义学: 研究“意义” 的科学,即研究语言及其交际功能。句法学和音系学研究语言的所有可能的表达结构,而词义学则注重于对可能表达的“意义”研究。从语言学角度上,曾出现一些关于词义的论点和说法,其中主要理论包括:命名论,语境论,意念论和行为主义论。

endocentric: Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents , i.e. , a word or a group of words , which serves as a definable Centre or Head . In the phrase two pretty girls, girls, is the Centre or Head of this phrase or word group.

   向心结构: 指该结构的发布在功能上相当于它的一个或几个成分,如: 一个词或一个词组在功能方面它们都可以作为一个可定义核心或中心。在短语two pretty girls 中,girls 是这个短语或词组的核心或中心。

exocentric: Exocentric construction refers to a group of syntactically related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as a whole, that is, there is no definable " Centre " or " Head " inside the group . Exocentric construction usually Includes basic sentence, prepositional phrase, predicate (verb + object) construction , and connective ( be + completnent ) construction . In the sentence The boy smiled, neither constituent can substitute for the sentence structure as a whole.

 离心结构:离心结构由一组句法上相关的词构成,但其任何成分的功能都不在与这个词组作为一个整体时功能相同,即该词组没有可定义的“核心”或“中心”。离心结构常常可以是一个基本句,一个介词短语,一个谓语结构(动词+宾语)或是一个连接结构(连系动词be+补语)。句子The boy smiled中没有成分可以代替整个结构。

denotation: In the philosophers ' usage , denotation involves the relationship between a linguistic unit      

and the non-linguistic entities to which it refers . Thus it is equivalent to referential meaning. For example, the denotation of human is any person such as John and Mary.

    外延:按照哲学界的用法,外延涉及语言单位跟非语言实体之间的关系。在这个意义上,它跟指称意义是一样的。例如,“人”这个词的外延式约翰、玛丽这样的任何人。

connotation: In the philosophers’ usage, connotation, opposite to denotation , means the properties of the entity a word denotes . For example, the connotation of human is “biped",

" featherless " and " rational”, etc .

 内涵:按照哲学界的用法,内涵跟外延相对,指的是一个词所指称的实体的特性。例如,“人”这个词的内涵就是“双足”、“无毛”、“有理性”等。

 

reference: Reference is concerned with the relation between a word and the thing it refers to , or more generally between a linguistic unit and a non-linguistic entity it refers to.

指称:指称涉及一个词跟它所指称的实体之间的关系,更一般地说,它涉及的是语言单位跟非语言单位实体之间的关系。

 

sense: In contrast to reference , sense may be defined as the semantic relations between one word and another , or more generally between one linguistic unit and another . It is concerned with the intralinguistic relations.

涵义:跟指称相反,涵义可以被界定为词与词之间的语义关系,更一般地说,它涉及的是一个语言单位跟另一个语言单位之间的关系,是语言内关系。

 

 

三  理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What is sense and what is reference? How are they related?

   什么是意思?什么是所指?它们之间有什么联系?

Sense refers to the inherent meaning of a linguistic form, which is a collection of semantic meanings, abstract and decontextualized. Reference is what a linguistic form refers to in the real world; it is a matter of the relationship between the form and the reality.

“意思”指的是语言形式的内在意义,它是一个语义的组合,是抽象的和脱离语境的。“所指”是一个语言形式在现实世界所指称的事物;它是形式和现实之间的联系问题。

  

第四章   Semantics   语义 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

第四章   Semantics   语义 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

                    

3. How to understand the difference between meaning, concept, connotation and denotation?

如何理解意义,概念,内涵,外延等相互间的区别?

   “Meaning” refers to the association of language symbols with the real world. There many types of meanings according to different approaches. “Concept ” is the impression of objects in people’s mind. “Denotation”, like “sense”, is not directly related with objects, but makes the abstract assumption of the real world. “Connotation” is the implied meaning, similar to “implication” and “implicature”.

 “意义”指的是语言符号与客观世界的一种关联。“概念”是客观事物在人脑中的印象。“意义”属语言范畴,而“概念”属思维范畴。“外延”与“内涵”相反或相对,指从无数事物中抽象或概括出来的特征。“内涵”就是隐含或意涵,相当于“言外之意”。

 

4. What are the major types of synonyms in English?

   英语中的几种主要同义关系是什么?

Dialectal synonyms, stylistic synonyms, emotive synonyms, collocational synonyms, and semantic synonyms

Some examples:

Fond…of, keen…on;           (collocational)

Autumn, fall;                 (dialectal)  

  Dad, father;                  (stylistic)

Thrifty, miserly, economical;     (emotive)

Kid, offspring, child;           (stylistic)

Windscreen, windshield;        (dialectal)

Like, love, adore;              (emotive)

     Amaze, astound;               (semantic)

Accuse of, charge…with;        (collocational)

Escape, flee;                  (semantic)

主要有:方言同义词,文体同义词,情感同义词,搭配同义词,语义同义词。

分类举例:

           喜欢,乐于;     (搭配类同义词)

           秋天,收获时节; (方言类同义词)

           爸,父亲;       (文体类同义词)

           节俭,吝啬;     (情感类同义词)

           娃,小孩;       (文体类同义词)

           风屏,挡风玻璃; (方言类同义词)

           热爱,崇敬;     (情感类同义词)

           诧异,惊愕;     (语义类同义词)

           指责,指控;     (搭配类同义词)

           逃避,脱逃;     (语义类同义词)

 

5.  How do you define homonymy and polysemy and hyponymy respectively? Provide with examples.

      什么是同形异义,一词多义,及上下义关系?举例说明。

   Homonymy:identical in form (either in sound or in spelling, or in both) but different in meaning, e.g. night –knight, lead v. lead n., bank (a financial institution) – bank (side of a river)

   Polysemy :one form having more than one meaning, e.g. earth: our planet, the soil on its surface

   Hyponymy:relation of semantic inclusion butween a word which is more general and a word which is more specific, e.g. furniture - table

   同形异义:形式上一致(或者在发音上,或者在拼写上,或者两者都一样),但意义上不同的词。如:night – knight, lead. n., bank(银行)-bank(河岸)

    一词多义: 一个词有多种意义。例如:earth——地球,地球表面的土壤

    上下义关系:一个更具有一般性的词和一个较为具体的词之间的语义包含关。例如:furniture-table(家具/饭桌)

 

6. How can words opposite in meaning be classified? To which category does each of the following pairs of antonyms belong?

    意义相反的词是如何分类的?下列反义词属于哪一类?

left/right;   far/near;   vacant/occupied;

father/daughter;  north/south;  doctor/patient; 

dark/bright;  ugly/beautiful;   male/female; 

Antonymy refers to oppositeness of meaning on different dimensions. Words that stand opposite in meaning are called “antonyms, on opposites, which fall in three categories, according to modern semanticians. 1) gradable antonyms; 2) complementary antonyms; 3)relational antonyms. Here are some typical classifications of pairs of antonyms.

  Gradable:  far/near; ugly/beautiful; dark/bright

  Complementary:  male/female; vacant/occupied;

  Relational: left/right; father/daughter; north/south;

 

    词与词之间存在着相反或相对的语义关系,叫做反义关系。词义相反或相对的词叫反义词。现代语义学家以语义对比为依据来划分反义词类。共分三类:1)级差类;2)互补类;3)关系类。下面是几组词的归类例子。

                             左/右;远/近;空缺的/占据的;父/女;北/南;医生/患者;

                             暗/明;丑/美;男性/女性

                             级差类:丑/美;远/近;暗/明;

                             互补类;空缺的/占据的;男性/女性;

                             关系类:父/女;左/右;医生/患者;北/南;

 

7. What are the relations between the following pairs of sentences?

    下列几组句子间的关系是什么?

                            Tom’s wife is pregnant.

                            Tom has a wife.

 

                             He likes swimming.

                              He likes sports.

 

                              My sister will soon be divorced.

                              My sister is a married woman.

 

                              He speaks English.

                              He speaks a foreign language.

      Analysis:

                      “Tom’ s wife is pregnant” presupposed “Tom has a wife.”

                       “My sister will soon be divorced” presupposes “My sister is a married woman.”

                        “He likes swimming” entails “He likes sports.”

                         “He speaks English” entails “He speaks a foreign language.”

           分析:

                          “汤姆的妻子已怀孕”预设了前提“汤姆有妻子”

                          “我姐姐要离婚了”预设了前提“我姐姐是个已婚妇人”

                          “他喜欢游泳”蕴含着 “他喜欢运动”

                           “他讲英语” 蕴含着“他说外语”

 

8. In what way is componential analysis similar to the analysis of phonemes into distinctive features?

    成分分析法与音位区别性特征分析法有何相似之处?

    In the light of componential analysis, the meaning of a word consists of a number of distinctive meaning features; the analysis breaks down the meaning of the word into these features; it is these different features that distinguish word meaning. Similarly, a phoneme is considered as a collection of distinctive sound features; a phoneme can be broken down into these distinctive sound features and it is these sound features that distinguish different sounds.

     根据成分分析,一个单词的词义包含一些区别性语义特征;这种分析单词的意义分析成了这些特征;区分词义的就是这些不同的特征。与此相似,一个音位被视为一组区别性语音特征的总合;一个音位可以分成这些区别性语音特征;区分不同语音就是这些语音特征。

 

9. What is grammaticality? What might make a grammatically meaningful sentence semantically meaningless?

   什么是语法性?一个语法上有意义的句子可能由于什么而变得在语义上毫无意义?

   Grammaticality:the grammatical wee – formedness of a sentence.

      A sentence may be well – formed grammatically, i. e. It conforms to the grammatical rules of the language, but it is not necessarily semantically well – formed, i. e., it may not make sense at all.

    语法性:一个句子在语法上合乎规范。一个句子在语法上可能符合规范,换言之,它符合所属语言的语法规则,但在语义上并不一定符合规范,也就是说,它可能毫无意义。

 

10. What is predication analysis? Try to use it to analyze the following sentences.

    什么是述谓结构?试用它分析所给句子。

     Predication analysis is a new approach for sentential meaning analysis. Predication is usually considered an important common category shared by propositions, questions, commands etc. Predication is to break down the sentence into their smaller constituents: argument (logical participant) and predicate (relation element). The “predicate” is the major or pivotal element governing the argument.

所谓述谓是指句子的抽象的语义内容,绝大多数的句子内容都是由一个人或物以及对这个人或物的表述构成的。从语义结构角度来看,这两部分分别称为论元和谓语。述谓分析是指通过对这两部分的分析以达到对句子意义进行分析的许多模式中的一种。“述谓”或“谓语化”是所有的健全语句(如命题,肯定句,否定句,疑问句祈使句等)的共同特征。语义学家运用述谓这一范畴,并将它分解成两部分:论元和谓语,前者是“逻辑参与者”,后者是“关系因素”,把论元联系起来。试看下面四个句子:

               1)  The man sells ice – cream.   

                2)Is the baby sleeping?

                3)It is snowing.           

                4)The tree grows well.

    Analysis:

       1) The man sells ice – cream. It is two – place predication consisting of two arguments: Man and ICE-CREAM, and the predicate (SELL)

       2) Is the baby sleeping?  It is one – place predication: BABY (SLEEP)

       3) It is snowing.  It is no – place predication: (SNOW)

       4) The tree grows well.  It is one – place predication: (TREE) (GROW)

 

     1)The man sells ice – cream. 该句是两位述谓,包含两个论元:MAN和 ICE-CREAM,和谓词(SELL)

     2)Is the baby sleeping? 该句是单位述谓:BABY(SLEEP)

     3)It is snowing. 该句是零位述谓:(SNOW)没有论元

     4)The tree grows well. 该句是单位述谓:TREE(GROW)

 

11. What is Conceptualist View?

       什么是意念论?

     This view holds that there is no direct link between a linguistic form and what it refers to; rather, in the interpretation of meaning they are linked through the mediation of concepts in the mind.

     意念论认为词汇与该词汇所指的事物之间的关系,不是直接的,而是间接的。词汇通过头脑中的意念来指称事物,意念就是词汇的意义。

 

12. What is Contextualism?

    什么是语境理论?

“Contextualism” is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from, or reduce it to, observable context: the situational context and the linguistic context. Every utterance occurs  in a particular spatio-temporal environment, as the following factors are related to the situational context: 1)the speaker and the hearer; 2)the actions they are performing at the time; 3)various external objects and events; 4)decide features.

人们假设可以从语境中推知词义或意义,这就是“语境论的由来。每句话都是在一定的时空情景中说出来的,这就是“情景语境”。它有以下四个因素:1)讲话人和听话人;2)当时交流双方在做的事情;3)其它外在的事件或物;4)指示成分。

 

13. What is Behaviorism?

    什么是行为主义论?

It refers to the attempt to define the meaning of a language form as the “situation in which the speaker utters it and the response it calls forth in the hearer”(Bloomfield,1933). This theory is somewhat close to contextualism emphasizing on the psychological response.

       语义的行为主义论也是把语义放到语境中去研究,但它更注重人的心理活动,认为语言的意义存在于使用者在交际过程中对所接受到的话语的反应。

 

14. What is Hyponymy?

    什么是下义关系?

     It refers to the sense relation between a more general, more inclusive word and a more specific word. The word which is more general in meaning is called superordinate, and the more specific words are called its hyponyms. The diagram below shows the concept.

      下义关系实际是指两词意之间的关系分别表示的是逻辑上的概念与种的概念。表示一般意义的属性的概念的词,称之为上义词,而表示具体的种性概念的词,我们叫它下义词。请看下面的示意图。

     

第四章   Semantics   语义 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

15. What is Semantic Triangle?

      什么是语义三角

                                                              

     Ogden and Richards presented the classic “Semantic Triangle” as manifested in the above diagram, in which the “symbol” refers to the linguistic elements (word, sentence, etc.), the “referent” refers to the object in the world of experience, and the “thought” or “reference” refers to concept or notion. Thus the symbol of a word signifies “things” by virtue of the “concept”, associated with the form of the word in the mind of the speaker of the language. The “concept” thus considered is the meaning of the word. The connection (represented with a dotted line) between symbol and referent is made possible only through “concept”.                                                        

奥德根和里查德提出的经典“语义三角(如下图所示),其基本观点是:概念、思想和符号(即字词)发生直接联系,而与“所指客体/事物”(即现实世界和人的经历)并不存在直接联系。它们二者的关系要求助于概念/思想。所以,“符号”跟“客体”之间用的是虚线。换句话说,概念就是词汇的意义。

第四章   Semantics   语义 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

 

16.  How do you analyze each of the underlined constructions or word groups do the following?

   如何分析下列划线的结构体和词组?

         1. State whether it is headed or non-headed
                 2. If headed, state its headword
                 3. Name the type of constructions
           Ex.  His son will be keenly competing.
    Answer: headed, headword 一competing; verbal group.
          ( a ) Ducks quack.
         ( b ) The ladder in the shed is long enough.

  ( c ) I saw a bridge damaged beyond repair.
         ( d )  Singing hymns is forbidden in some countries.
         ( e )His handsome face appeared in the magazine.
         ( f )   A lady of great beauty came out
         ( g )  He enjoys climbing high mountains.
         ( a )  ( nonheaded, independent clause )
         ( b ) ( non-head , prepositional phrase )
         ( c )  ( headed; headword 一damaged ; adjectival group )
         ( d )  ( headed; headword 一singing ; gerundial phrase )
         ( e )  ( headed; headword 一face ; nominal group )
         ( f )  ( non-headed; prepositional phrase )
         ( g )  ( headed ; headword 一climbing; gerundial phrase )

  (1) 判断划线部分是否有中心词;

  (2) 如果有,指出其中心词;

  (3) 标出结构体的类别。

  例:His son will be keenly competing.

  答案:有中心词,中心词为“competing”;动词词组

             (a)    Ducks quack. (鸭子呱呱叫)

             (b)    The ladder in the shed is long enough. (货棚里的梯子足够长)

             (c)    I saw a bridge damaged beyond repair. (我看到了一座无法修葺的大桥)

             (d)    Singing hymns is forbidden in some countries. (在某些国家中,唱赞美诗是严令禁止的)

             (e)    His handsome face appeared in the magazine. (他帅气的脸庞出现在这本杂志里)

             (f)     A lady of great beauty came out. (以为美妙绝伦的女士出现了)

             (g)    He enjoys climbing high mountains. (他非常喜欢攀登高山)

 

              (a)     没有中心词,独立小句。

              (b)    没有中心词,介词短语。

              (c)     有中心词,中心词为“damaged”;形容词词组。

              (d)    有中心词,中心词为“singing”;动名词短语。

              (e)     有中心词,中心词为“face”;名词词组。

              (f)     没有中心词,介词短语。

              (g)    有中心词,中心词为“climbing”;动名词短语。

 

 17. What are sense relations between sentences?

          句子间的意思关系有哪些?

     There are certain relations between sentences and between constituents of the same sentence. Mainly there are six types.

Notice:  X and Y may mean a sentence or part of it

 

           1)      synonymous relation  (equivalent)

                                 X is Y.

           2)      inconsistent relation   (negative)

                                 X is not Y

           3)      entailing relation      (inclusive)

                                   X is more than Y

           4)  presupposition relation  (assumed)

                                 X is after Y

           5)  contradictory relation   (impossible)

                             X is against Y

           6   anomalous relation     (non-sensical)

                            X is strange with Y

             句子与句子之间或同一句子里的各成分间都存在着关系。它们主要有六种。

              归纳如下(注意:X 和Y 代表句子或同一句中的成分):

       

                            1)        同义关系   (相等)

                                              x 是 y   

                            2)        对立关系   (否定)

                                             x 不是y

                            3)        蕴涵关系   (包容)

                                                x 大于y

                            4)        预设关系   (前提)

                                                  x 后于y

                            5)        矛盾关系   (相斥)

                                                x 不容y

                             6)  超常关系   (胡言)

                                                 x 不配y

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