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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第五章 Syntax 语序  

2011-07-30 08:58:20|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  一、核心提示

无论是口头语还是书面语, 语言均呈线性,受时间与空间的客观约束,其成分在时空上有先有后, 且按照约定的规则排列。

然而,语序的物理线性呈现这一绝对共性并不能掩盖语言结构的层次性,如语义主次、纬度上下、语气强弱等,因为,虽然信息相同,不同语言在线状排列上不同。如法语的核心名词在形容词前,而英语的核心名词在形容词之后。再如The daughter of Pharaoh’s son is the son of the Pharaoh’s daughter 这句有名的歧义句, 就是由于结构引起的。此外,格语言(如古英语)的语序松散、自由, 而非格语言(如现代英语)的语序则很严格等。

所以,排列正确的句子被认为是合乎语法的句子。合乎语法的句子是根据一套句法规则构成的。句法是一个规则系统。句法是一个由一套数量有限的抽象规则组成的系统,句子由单词组合而成。句子的语法性是指句子的合成必须符合操本族语者头脑中的语法知识。任何语言的句法规则的数量是有限的,但说话者可以理解和表达的句子的数量是无限的。

需要特别注意的是,英语和汉语分属不同类型的语言,前者是字母型的,后者是图象型的。此外,英语是多音节的,汉语是单音节的。由于字母排列的线式唯一性以及多音节的性质,英语在客观上具备前缀、中缀、后缀的有限选择;而汉语是单音节的,无法在前、中、后的位置上添加语素;又由于其象形文字的特性,汉语逐渐演化成高度语用型语言。

所以,西方语言(英语)的语序中考虑一些要素如时态、人称、性别、数量等一致,汉语中则没有如此之类的对应。但是,这绝对不能理解为:汉语中没有时态、单复数等概念,只能理解为:由于汉语的象形特点及高度语用性,英语中含在形式中的信息均由汉语交流者承担并传递。

 

二. 概念定义

 

Syntax:It is a sub-field of linguistics that studies the sentence structure of language. Specifically, it is the study of the rules governing the ways in which words, word groups and phrases are joined to form sentences in a language, or the study of the interrelationships between sentential elements.

句法学:语言学的一个分支,研究语言句子的结构。具体说来,它研究的是词,词组和短语组合成句子的种种规则,规律及方式,它研究句子中各成分之间的关系。

syntactic category:a word or phrase that performs a particular grammatical function such as subject or object. It includes lexical categories such as nouns, adjectives pronoun or phrases such as NP, VP, PP etc. More specifically, it refers to the defining properties these general units: the categories of nouns, for instance, include gender, number, or case; and the categories of verbs include tense, aspect or voice. Grammatically, expressions that can replace other ones in the same position in a sentence belong to the same category and usually referred to as “ vertical relations”.

句法范畴:主要指具有一定语法功能的单词或词组,如充当主语或宾语。有词类和短语类,如名词,形容词和代词,短语有名词短语,动词短语和介词短语。除此之外,它还可用来更具体地指上述笼统语言单位的定义性特征。如名词这一范畴,就包含性,格,数等;动词范畴包括时态,语态和体态等更小的范畴。从语法功能讲,一些词语能被放入句中相同位置,应属同一范畴,这称之为“选择关系”。

Co-occurrence: It means that words of different sets of clauses may permit, or require, the occurrence of a word of another set or class to form a sentence or a particular part of a sentence. For instance , what can precede a noun ( dog ) is usually the determiners and adjectives , and what can follow it when it takes the position of subject will be predicators such as bark , bite , run , etc . In short, co-occurrence is the syntactic environment in which a construction, with its relevant elements, can appear grammatically and conventionally. Thus relations of cooccurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations, partly to paradigmatic relations.

   共现:指的是句子中不同部分的各类词允许或要求与另外一个词类的词搭配使用,这样才能组成一个完整的句子或是句子中的某一特定成分。例如,用在名词(dog)前面的通常是限定词或是形容词,而当这个名词作主语时,后面接续的词是谓语(如bark,bark,run等)。简言之,共现就是句子构建的环境,在这个环境中一个结构体能够与其他相关成分一起出现,既合乎语法又符合规范。因此,从一定程度上讲共现关系既属于组合关系又属于聚合关系。

construction: it refers to any syntactic construct which is assigned one or more conventional functions in a language , together with whatever is linguistically conventionalized about its contribution to the meaning or use construct contains. It can be further divided into the external and internal properties. Take the sentence The boy kicked the ball as an example , we will determine the external syntax as an independent clause , while NP ( " the boy " ) , VP ( " kicked " ) and NP ( " the ball " ) will be assigned respectively to the different elements in this clause .

   结构体:指的是语言中任意一个句子结构。该结构具有一个或多个语法功能,并且包括任何合乎语言规范的成分,该成分对结构中所包含的用法或意义发挥了作用。这个结构体包含外部特点和内部特点。以句子The boy kicked the ball为例,从外部特点而言,我们将整个句子看作一个独立小句,而从内部特点角度看,该句子中的名词词组(“the boy”),动词词组(“kicked”)和名词词组(“the ball”)都分别属于不同的句子成分。

constituent: Constituent is a term used in structural sentence analysis for every linguistic unit , which is a part of a larger linguistic unit . Several constituents together form a construction : for example, In the sentence The boy ate the apple , S ( A ) , the boy(B ) , ate the apple ( C ) , each part is a constituent . Constituents can be joined together with other constituents to form larger units . If two constituents , in the case of the example above , B ( the boy)and C ( ate the apple ) , are joined to form a hierarchically higher constituent A ( " S " , here a sentence ) , then B and C are said to be immediate constituents of A .

       成分:作为一个术语,成分指的是用于句子结构分析的一个语言单位,它是一个比其更大的语言单位的一部分。几个成分共同构成一个结构体:例如,在The boy ate the apple这个句子中,S(A),the boy(B),ate the apple(C),这三个部分分别可以算作一个成分。各个成分可以和其他成分组合构成更大的语言单位。在上面的例子中,如果两个成分B(the boy)和C(ate the apple)连接构成了更大的成分A(“S”,在此表示句子),那么B和C就是A的直接成分。

endocentric: Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents , i.e. , a word or a group of words , which serves as a definable Centre or Head . In the phrase two pretty girls, girls, is the Centre or Head of this phrase or word group.

   向心结构: 指该结构的发布在功能上相当于它的一个或几个成分,如: 一个词或一个词组在功能方面它们都可以作为一个可定义核心或中心。在短语two pretty girls 中,girls 是这个短语或词组的核心或中心。

exocentric: Exocentric construction refers to a group of syntactically related words where none of the words is functionally equivalent to the group as a whole, that is, there is no definable " Centre " or " Head " inside the group . Exocentric construction usually Includes basic sentence, prepositional phrase, predicate (verb + object) construction , and connective ( be + completnent ) construction . In the sentence The boy smiled, neither constituent can substitute for the sentence structure as a whole.

  离心结构:离心结构由一组句法上相关的词构成,但其任何成分的功能都不在与这个词组作为一个整体时功能相同,即该词组没有可定义的“核心”或“中心”。离心结构常常可以是一个基本句,一个介词短语,一个谓语结构(动词+宾语)或是一个连接结构(连系动词be+补语)。句子The boy smiled中没有成分可以代替整个结构
agreement: Agreement (or concord ) may he defined as the requirement that the forms of two or more words of specific word classes that stand in specific syntactic relationship with one another shall also , be characterized by the same paradigmatically marked category ( or categories ) . For instance , the syntactic relationship between this pen and it in the following dialogue :
   一Whose id this pen?
   一Oh , It’s the one I lost.

   一致关系:又叫做协同关系,是指两个或更多处于某种语法关系中的词,要在某些凸显的聚合关系的范畴内保持一致的形式。例如,下面对话中“this pen”与“it”的语法关系恰恰体现了这种一致性:

        ——Whose is this pen?(这是谁的笔?)

——Oh,it’s the one I lost,(噢,这正是我丢的那只。)


embedding: Embedding refers to the means by which one clause is included in another clause in     syntactic subordination . e.g., I saw the man who had visit you last year.

嵌入:指某小句在主从语法关系中附属于另一小句的形式。例如,I saw the man who had visited you last year. (我看见了去年拜访你的那个人)

cohesion: Cohesion refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text, and that define it as a text . The cohesive devices usually include: conjunction, ellipsis , lexical collocation , lexical repetition , reference , substitution , and so on . In the following example, the cohesive device is " Reference” that is , " it " refers back to the door : He couldn’t open the door. It was locked tight.

     衔接:衔接主要是指存在于语篇中的意义群之间的关系,而此种关系恰恰界定了语篇的概念。连贯的方式一般包括:关联、省略、词汇搭配、词汇重复、指代、替代等。在下面的例子中,连贯的方式是“指代”,也就是说,“it”回指“the door”:He couldn’t open the door. It was locked tight.

 

三.   理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

       

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

                    

     In sum, the hierarchical structure means the sentence structure that groups words into structural constituents and shows syntactic categories of each structural constituent, such as NP and VP or PP.

     表面上看去,句子都是呈横线状排列,一个词连接一个词,如下面这个句子所示:

     “那座花园朝南,获得充足阳光。”

        然而,仔细分析后,我们发现该句并不是百分百前后排列,而是按群(词组)排列的。从关系上看,应该是:

那座花园 朝南,获得充足阳光

后两部分是并列关系,同与前部分形成述谓。

总之,层次结构是指由词组(名词词组,动词词组)等语法成分单位构成的具有分明的层次性特征的句子结构。

   

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

3. What is Universal Grammar?

       什么是普遍语法

   The theory was proposed by Chomsky and developed by other generative linguists so far. UG, as is usually abbreviated, is a system of linguistic knowledge which is possessed only by human beings and exists in the minds of all normal people. That accounts for the very fact that an English baby’s mother tongue could be Japanese and a German baby’s could be Chinese language. All natural languages share a great number of features such as linear and hierarchical structures or primacy of speech. Specific languages differ in some way from one another due to historic, cultural and geographical facts. These differences are reflected by general principles   and parameters from UG. To facilitate understanding, herein a diagram is prepared to  demonstrate the main idea of Universal Grammar.

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客 
第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客 
第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客
 

5. How to define sentences as a simple, coordinate or complex? Try to make use of the sentences offered to analyze.

    什么是简单句、并列句和复合句?请利用所给句子分析。

     A simple sentence consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate and stands alone as its own sentence.

    A coordinate sentence contains two clauses joined by a linking word called coordinating conjunction, such as “and”, “ but “ “or”.

    A complex sentence contains two, or more, clauses, one of which is incorporated into the other. The subordinate is said to be embedded clause and the other is said to be matrix clause.

         1) The dog wagged its tail for it was pleased.

         2) I never went there, but Jane did it three times.

         3) They were warned to remain quiet and not to expose themselves.

         4) She leads a peaceful life in the country.

         5) Unless I hear from her, I won’t leave this town.

         6)Tom bought a cat and his wife had her killed accidentally.

Answer:

          简单句由一个句子组成,该子句包含一个主语和一个谓语,并独立构成句子。

         并列句包含两个子句,这两个子句由“和” “但” “或”等被称为连词的连接词连接。

        复和句包含两个或两个以上的子句,其中一个被并入另一个子句。被并入的处于从属地位的那个叫嵌入句,而另一个则称之为经络句。

                1) complex     2) coordinate  3) simple

                4) simple       5)complex    6)coordinate

                1)复合句  2)并列句    3)简单句

                4)简单句  5)复合句    6) 并列句

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

              2)        The tower on the hill collapsed in the wind.

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

7. How to reveal with examples given, the differences in sentential meanings by drawing a tree diagram?

    如何用结构树形图画出句子中的意义关系区别?

         Example One:  Mary advised John to see the dentist.

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

                        Mary promised    John   Mary see   the    doctor

 

8. What is Immediate Analysis? Try to disambiguate the sentences below by using the

                 leave the dog at the door.

 

第五章  Syntax   语序 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

  

The word Leave is separated from the phrase the dog at the door at point B, thus to indicate the dog is always there with the door.

该思想来自美国语言学家布龙菲尔德。他认为句子是由不同部分组成的,其各部分均有核心;句子中的所有的词都趋向各自的核心。直接成分分析法用于解析歧义或含混句子很有效。

     根据解释1,短语Leave the dog 与短语at the door 在A 点处被分开,由此断定狗

刚到门口;

根据解释2,单词Leave 与dog 在B 点处被分开,由此断定狗一直就在门口。

   所以,两句词语及顺序相同,含义迥异。

解释1得意思:把狗放在门口吧。

解释2的意思:别若门口那只狗。

9. Can you explain the main characteristics of subjects in English?

能否解释英语中主语的主要特征?
The grammatical category “subject” in different language possesses different characteristics. In English, "subject" may have the following characteristics:
  A. Word order: Subject ordinarily precedes the verb in a statement such as "Sally collects stamps."

B. Pronoun forms: The first and third person pronouns In English appear in a special form when the pronoun is a subject. This form is not used when the pronoun occurs in other positions:
     He loves me   I love him.   We threw stones at them.   They threw stones at us.
    C. Agreement with verb: In the simple present tense, an -s is added to the verb when a third person subject is singular. However , the number and person of the object or any other element in the sentence have no effect at all on the form of the verb :
     She angers him.They anger him.   She angers them.
  D. Content questions: if the subject, is replaced by a question word (who or what) , the rest of the sentence remains unchanged, as in ( b ) But when any other element of the sentence is replaced by a question word , an auxiliary verb must appear before the subject . If the basic sentence does not contain an auxiliary verb, we must Insert did or do (es) immediately after the question word, as in (d, e)
  ( a ) John stole/would steal Mrs. Thatcher’s picture from the British Council.
  ( b ) Who stole/would steal Mrs. Thatcher’s picture from the British council?
  ( c ) What would John steal, if he had the chance?
  ( d ) What did John steal from the British council?
  ( e)Where did John steal Mrs. Thatcher’s picture from?
E. Tag question: A TAG QUESTION is used to seek confirmation of a statement. It always contains a pronoun which refers back to the subject, and never to any other element in the sentence:
   John loves Mary, doesn’t he?

        主语作为一个语法范畴在不同的语言中具有不同的特点。在英语中,主语一般具有以下几个特点:

        A.语序:在陈述句中主语位置通常位于谓语动词的前面。例如:Sally collects stamps. (萨利集邮)。

        B.代词形式:当主语时代词的时候,英语中第一人称和第三人称代词通常以特定形式出现。当代词出现在句子中的不同位置时不使用充当主语的代词形式。

        He loves me. 他爱我。

        I love him. 我爱他。

        We threw stones at them. 我们朝他们扔石头。

        They threw stones at us. 他们朝我们扔石头。

        C.主谓一致:在一般现在时态中,当主语时第三人称单数时谓语动词后面要添加“s”但是,句子中的宾语或其他成分的人称和数的变化根本不会影响谓语动词的形式,如:

        D.内容疑问句:如果主语被一个疑问词(who或what)取代,句子的其他成分保持不变,见句(b)。但当句子的其他成分被疑问词取代时,主语前必须出现一个助动词。如果这个基本句子不含有助动词,必须在疑问词的后面紧跟上did或do(es),见句(d)和(e)。

        (a) John stole/would steal Mrs. Thatcher’s picture from the British Council.

           约翰从英国参议会偷了/愿意偷撒切尔夫人的相片。

        (b) Who stole/would steal Mrs. Thatcher’s picture from the British council?

           谁从英国参议会偷到了/将要偷撒切尔夫人的相片?

        (c) What would John steal, if he had the chance?

           如果有机会,约翰愿意偷什么?

        (d) What did John steal from the British Council?

           约翰从英国参议会偷了什么?

        (e) Where did John steal Mrs.  Thatcher’s picture from?

           约翰从哪偷了撒切尔夫人的相片?

        E.附加疑问句:一个附加疑问句式用来寻求对一个陈述的确认的。它常含有一个  人称代词,只能指代前面的主语,不能够指代句子中的任何其他成分。

        John loves Mary, doesn’t he?

        约翰爱玛丽,不是吗?

 

10. What is the D-structure for each of the sentences given?

      所给句子的深层结构是什么?

1)The leader of the majority party was severely criticized by the media.

2) The man threw the rake away in the yard.

3) Will the new shop owner hire her?

4) What can the robot do for us?

Answer:

1) The media severely criticized the leader of the majority party.

2) The man threw away the rake in the yard.

3) The new shop owner will hire her.

4) The robot can do what for us.

 

11. How do syntactic rules account for the ambiguity of sentences? Draw on your linguistic knowledge of English and paraphrase  the given sentences in two different ways

句法规则是如何解释句子的模糊性?依靠你的英语知识用两种不同方式解释所给句子。

1)Smoking cigarettes can be nauseating.

2) Tony is a dirty street fighter.

3) After a two – day debate, they finally decided on the helicopter.

4) The man is too heavy to move.

5) The little girl saw the big man with the telescope.

Explain:

         1)      a) Putting tobacco in rolled-up paper and then smoking it can make one feel sick.

         2)      b) A cigarette which gives out smoke can make one feel sick.

         3)      a) Tony is a bad guy who likes to fight in the street.

                   b) Tony is a sanitation worker who cleans dirty streets.

         4)       a) After a two-day debate, they reached a final decision while they were on the helicopter.

                   b) After a two-day debate, they finally decided to use the helicopter.

         5)       a) They man is so overweight that it is difficult for him to move around by himself.

                    b) The man is so overweight that it is difficult for others to remove him.

         6)       a) The little girl saw the big man through her telescope.

                   b) The little girl saw the big man who carried his telescope.

 

               1.         吸的烟可产生恶心感。

               2.         托尼是马路斗士,脏着呢。

               3.         经过两天的辩论,他们最后在直升机上达成一致。

               4.         那胖男的太胖,挪动很困难。

               5.         小姑娘瞅见那个男的用的是望远镜。

 

         解释:

                     1.  a) 将烟草卷在纸里面,然后抽它,可以让人觉得难受(恶心)。

                             b) 烟味让人觉得难受(恶心)。

                     2.  a) 托尼是个坏孩子,在马路上打架。

                             b) 托尼是名环卫工人,在马路上干活脏。

                     3.  a) 经过两天的辩论,他们最终在乘坐的直升机上达成一致。

                             b) 经过两天的辩论,他们最终在直升机问题上达成一致。

                    4.  a) 那男的太胖,所以他自己不能走动。

                            b) 那男的太胖,我们挪不动他。

                   5.  a) 小姑娘是透过望远镜瞅见那个大个子男的。

                           b) 小姑娘看见那大个子男的,他正拿着望远镜。

     

  12. How to demonstrate the Recursive Properties?

             如何示范语句循环这一特点?

            “Recursiveness” means that theoretically there is no limit to the potential length of sentences, and the set of sentences of any language is infinite. The following examples may illustrate the point.

                      Example One:

                                 a) He is fond of keeping pets.

                                 b) Tom’s mother hates that he is fond of keeping pets.

                                 c) I am not sure why Tom’s mother hates that he is fond of keeping pets

                    Example Two:

                                        a) It is a book.

                                        b) It is a book I bought.

                                        c) It is a book I bought yesterday at the newsstand….

      递归性是指语言结构有循环的特点。由于这一特点,在理论上讲句子可以无限长,任何语言又都可以有无限多的句子。下面举两例说明。

                        例一:

                                     1)  他喜欢养宠物。

                                     2)  汤姆的妈妈讨厌他喜欢养宠物。

                                     3)  我说不来为何汤姆的妈妈讨厌他喜欢养宠物。

                      例二:

                                      1)  这是一本书。

                                      2)  这是我买的一本书。

                                      3)  这是我昨天在报刊亭买的一本书。

 

 

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