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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第六章 Pragmatics 语用  

2011-08-01 17:03:06|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示

语用学由语义学发展而来,只有几十年的历史。如果说,语义学是将语言表达的意义局限在以语符为圆心的范畴内,那么可以认为,语用学是将语言表达的意义转移到以人为中心的范畴。思考问题的落脚点已经改变。这么一来,语言的意义便没有了局限,正如语用学的经典内容“指称”(这里,它、那个等),总随其对应的客观世界而变化。

其实,这样的变化本来就一直存在着。那就是语言任意性、位移性本质的体现或作用,只是原来的语义学忙于解决人类语言交际中首要、最通行、普遍性的语义,从而使语义能够被使用者扑捉并控制。 

语用学是侠义语言学的内容,如同语义学,语法学、语音学等一样。不应将其视为认知语言学、社会语言学或应用语言学等属于广义语言学的内容。

        随着语用学的发展,原来语义学无法解释的问题(如修辞、幽默等在语言使用中产生的特别意义)都被轻易解释了。所以,语用学的甚至可以理解为:将既定符号置入任何语境之中,其意义会有所不同,但一定能够被理解。

       语言学界对语用学的定义和范畴尚没有统一的见解,但却有一种共识,即“语境是语用学的核心概念之一”。人们的正常语言交流总离不开特定的语境,“这里的语境包括交际的场合(时间、地点等),交际的性质(话题),交际的参与者(相互间的关系、对客观世界的认识和信念、过去的经验、当时的情绪等)以及上下文。

 

二、概念定义 

 

Conversational implicature: This is a type of implied meaning, which is deduced on the basis of the conversational meaning of words together with the context, under the guidance of the CP and its maxims. In this sense, implicature is comparable to illocutionary force in speech act theory in that they are both concerned with the contextual side of meaning or言外之意in Chinese.

会话含义:这是一种暗含意义,可以在合作原则及其准则的指导下,在词语的常规意义基础上,联系语境推导出来。在这个意义上,会话含义跟言语行为理论中的行事语力是一样的。它们都涉及语境意义,或汉语所谓的“言外之意”。

 

Entailment: This is a logical relationship between two sentences in which the truth of the second necessarily follows from the truth of the first, while the falsity of the first follows from the falsity of the second. For example, when “I saw a boy” is necessarily true; and if “I saw a child” is not true, “I saw a boy” will not be true either.

衍推:衍推所涉及的是两个句子之间的这样一种逻辑关系:第一个句子为真,第二个句子就一定为真;第二个句子为假,第一个句子就一定为假。例如,当“I saw a boy”为真是,“I saw a child”为假时,“I saw a boy”也必假。

relevance (as a comparative notion): Sperber and Wilson have defined the notion relevance in three ways. In their view, relevance is a comparative concept, so they also have an extent-conditions format as follows:

Extent condition 1: an assumption is relevant in a context to the extent that its contextual effects in this context are large.

Extent condition 2: an assumption is relevant in a context to the extent that the effort required to process it in this context is small.

关联性:Sperber和Wilson从三个角度界定了关联性这个概念。他们认为关联性也是一个相对概念,因此他们又有如下的附带“程度条件”的关联性定义:

程度条件1:如果一个设想在一个语境中语境效应大,那么这个设想在这个语境中就具有关联性。

程度条件2:如果一个设想在一个语境中所需的处理努力小,那么这个设想在这个语境中就具有关联性。

performative: A performative is a sentence like “I name the ship the Queen Elizabeth”, which does not describe things and cannot be said to be true or false. The uttering of a performative sentence is, or is a part of, the doing of an action. Verbs like “name” are known as performative verbs.

    施为句:施为句是“我命名这艘船为<伊丽莎白>号”这样的句子。它们不描写事物,没有真假。说出这样的句子就是,至少部分是,实施一种行为。像 “命名” 这样的动词叫“施为动词”。

Constative: In contrast to performative, sentences like “I pour some liquid into the tube”is a description of what the speaker is doing at the time of speaking. The speaker cannot pour any liquid into a tube by simply uttering these words. He must accompany his words with the actual pouring. Otherwise one can accuse him of making a false statement.

叙事句:叙事句与施为句相对。“I pour some liquid into the tube”(我往事关里倒一些液体)这样的句子是对说话人正在做的事的描写。说话人不可能通过说这几个字往试管里倒任何东西,他必须同时真的实施倒东西的动作,否则我们可以说他撒谎。

 

Ostensive communication: “ Ostensive communication”, or “inferential communication” is a shorthand for “ostensive-inferential communication” That is, communication is not simply a matter of encoding and decoding, it also involves inference on the part of the hearer and ostension (making clear of one’s intention to express something) on the part of the speaker.

明示交际:“明示交际”,或“推理交际”,是“明示—推理交际”的简称。换言之,交际不只是简单的编码和解码的过程,它也涉及听话人的推理和说话人的明示(一种表明自身说话意图的行为)。

 

三、理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What does pragmatics study? How does it differ from traditional semantics?

    语用学是研究什么的?它和传统语义学有何不同?

Pragmatics studies how meaning is conveyed in the process of communication. It is a comparatively new branch of study in the area of linguistics; its development and establish in the 1960s and 1970s resulted mainly from the expansion of the study of linguistics, especially that of semantics. Generally it deals with how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication. The scope of pragmatic study includes “speech act theory”, “context”, “conversation implicature”, presupposition, etc.

The basic difference between pragmatics and traditional semantics is that pragmatics considers meaning in context and traditionally semantics studies meaning in isolation from the context of use. It may be said that pragmatics studies the meaning that is not accounted by semantics. It can also be expressed in the formula: pragmatics=meaning-semantics. G. Leech, in his Principles of Pragmatics holds that:

  Semantics answers the question: What does X mean?  

  Pragmatics answers the question:  What did you mean by X?

    The following diagram demonstrates the scope of Pragmatics. Specifically, the box outside the circle is the actual sentence given by language users. This meaning is independent because the sentence is understood universally the same. Its meaning is stable or frozen, not to be changed in any way once uttered. The circle represents the spatio-temporal existence in which the language users communicate. The box inside the circle is the real purpose of the communication, affected by several factors. This meaning is elusive (by dotted line), changeable all the time according to different users in different situations. It is the focus of pragmatics. 

第六章  Pragmatics  语用学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

  

    语用学研究如何在交际过程中表达意义。语用学是上个世纪60、70年代兴起的语言学的一个新的分支,主要由语义学发展而来。它所研究的是语言同其使用者之间的关系,即在一定的交际环境中如何使用语言,包括说出和理解实际的话语两个方面。语用学的研究范围有:言语行为、会话含义、会话结构、前提等。

    语用学和传统语义学的根本不同是,语用学在语境中考虑意义,而传统语义学研究意义时丝毫不考虑语境。可以这么说,语用学研究语义学没有关注的意义。有这么一个公式:语用学等于意义减去语义学。引G. 利奇的话说:

    语义学研究的句子意义是回答:  X表达什么意义?

    语用学研究的话语意义是回答: 你说X想表达什么意义?

      上图表示了语用学的研究领域。圆上方的框里是“独立意义”,也就是道出的实际句子,它一成不变,意思固定。语言使用者X和Y 始终在圆圈里交流。圆圈表示交流者所的处环境,包括语言造成的和自然的环境。圆里的虚框才是交流者要抵达之处。但它的意义不固定,因人而变,因环境而变。语义学关注的是圆外的那个实框,而语用学关注的是圆里的虚框。且可称它为“语用三角”。

 

2.       How is the notion of context interpreted?

怎样解释语境这一概念?

The notion of context is essential to the pragmatic study of language. Pragmatically speaking, context determines, to great extent, the meaning discourses or the correctness of discourse meaning. Context is regarded as constituted by all kinds of knowledge assumed to be shared by the speaker and the hearer. The shared knowledge is of two types: the knowledge of language they use, and the knowledge of about the world, including the general knowledge about the world and the specific knowledge about the situation in which linguistic communication is taking place.

“语境”是语用学研究中的关键概念,因为再很大程度上决定着话语意义或话语意义的正确性。语境被看作是说话者和听话者共用的各种知识。双方共有的知识分为两种:对所使用的那种语言的知识和客观世界的知识(即一般常识和话语发生时环境)。

 

3.       How are sentence meaning and utterance meaning related and how do they differ?

句子意义和话语意义有什么联系与区别?

Utterance – meaning is based on sentence – meaning; the former is concrete and context – dependent and the latter is abstract and de-contextualized.

话语意义基于句子意义;前者是具体的,是受语境制约的,而后者是抽象的,非语境化的。

 

4.  What are the possible contexts in which the given sentences can be used for other purposes than just stating facts?

    哪些语境可能使所给的句子改变陈述事实而转作其它的用途?

                    (a) The room is messy.

                    (b) I can’t work under untidy circumstances.

                    (c) It would be good if she had a green skirt on.

          译:  (a)房间里乱糟糟的。

                    (b)我不能在不整洁的环境中工作。

                    (c)假如她穿的是绿裙子就好了。

         Other contexts:

                          (a) 1. a mild criticism of someone who should have cleaned the room.

                               2. in a language class where a student made a mistake, for he intended to say “tidy”.

                               3. the room was wanted for a meeting.

 

                         (b) 1. a request to someone to tidy up the circumstances.

                               2. It was an excuse for not wanting to do something there.

                               3. It is the speaker’s habit.

 

                         (c) 1. a mild way to express disagreement with someone who has complimented on a lady’s appearance.

                               2. a regret that the customer had not taken the dress.

                               3. That she wore a red skirt was not in agreement with the custom on the occasion.

            其它语境:

                                  (a)(1委婉地批评其人,认为他应该打扫房间。

                                      (2语言课堂上,学生造句用错了词,他本想说“整齐”。

                                      (3)本打算在此房间开会。

 

                                (b(1)请某人使环境整洁。

                                   (2)借口不在此处做事。

                                    (3)这是言者的习惯。

 

                               (c)(1)当某人称赞一女士的外观时温婉地提出异议。

                                    (2)很遗憾,那位顾客没买那件衣服。

                                     (3)她穿了件红裙子,这在该场合下不符民俗。

5. Of the following pairs of sentences, say whether A entails B in each case?

            在下列句子中,各组的A都能衍推B吗?

 

                                (1)  A. John is a bachelor.

                                       B. John is a man.

                                (2)   A. Janet plays the fiddle.

                                       B. Someone plays a musical instrument.

                                (3)   A. I’ve done my homework.

                                       B. I haven’t brushed my teeth.

                                (4)   A. Some of the students came to my party.

                                        B. Not all of the students came to my party.

                               (1) Yes.  (2) Yes.  (3) No.  (4) NO. 

             在下列句子中,各组的A都能衍推B吗?

                             (1)A.John is a bachelor.

                                       B.John is a man.

                              (2)A.Janet plays the fiddle.

                                        B.Someone plays a musical instrument.

                              (3)A.I’ve done my homework.

                                        B.I haven’t brushed my teeth.

                               (4)A.Some of the students came to my party.

                                         B.Not all of the students came to my party.

                                          (1)Yes.(2)Yes.(3)No.(4)No.

 

6. According to Austin, what are the three acts a person is possibly performing while making utterance? Give examples.

     根据奥斯汀的提法,人们说话时有可能实施哪三种行为?请举例。

       The three possible acts to be performed by a participant in verbal communication include locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act.

       Locutionary act: the act uttering words, phrase, clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology. For example, “This room is clean.” Without considering any other clues or factors, the sentence should be understood the same way by English users. It just means that a sentence was made by the user, and it is a clean room.

      Illocutionary act: the act of expressing the speaker’s intention; it is the act performed in saying something. By saying “This room is clean”, the language user intends to tell the inn-keeper that he wants to rent the room for the night.

      Perlocutionary act: the act performed by or resulting from saying something; it is the act performed by saying something. After having said “This room is clean” with the intention to  get the room, the language user finally got it from the inn-keeper. This happens as a result of his speech.

        参与语言交流的人可能发生或同时三种言语行为,包括言内行为,言外行为和言后行为。

     所谓言内行为,指的是用句子来叙述、报告、描写。它是话语过程本身,诸如句法、词汇和发言等。例如:“这房间干净”。倘若没有任何其它提示或因素环境,这句话无非就说明,有人说了一句话,将几个词通过语法排列成一行,意思是这个房间干净。谁都会这么理解的。

     言外行为是指说话过程中,通过话语的一些约定俗成的关联力量,进行陈述、承诺等,说话带有目的性。通过讲“这房间干净”这句话,言者是要告诉客栈老板,他想租该房间过夜。

     言后行为指的是行为本身就是讲话的结果。即讲话所产生的情感、思想、行动等的反应。讲完“这房间干净”这句话之后,老板会意。他最终住了进去。实现的行为是由于那句话。

7. Each of following conversational fragments is to some degree odd. To What extent can the oddness be explained by reference to Grice’s CP and Maxims?

     下面对话多少都有点问题,请问多大程度上,这些问题能用格赖斯的合作原则及其准则加以解释?

                (1)     A: Have you seen Peter today?

                         B: Well, if I didn’t seeing him I wouldn’t be telling a lie.

                (2)    A: Are you there?

                         B: No, I’m here.

                (3)    A: Thank you for your help, you’ve been most kind.

                         B: Yes, I have.

                (4)    A: Can you tell me where Mr. Smith’s office is?

                        B: Yes, not here.

                (5)    A: Would you like some coffer?

                        B: Mary’s a beautiful dancer.

                (6)    A: Has the postman been?

                        B: He leant his bicycle against the fence, opened the gate, strode briskly down the path, stopped to stroke the cat, reached into his bag, pulled out a bundle of letters and pushed them through our letter box.

                Without a proper context, these conversations can all be regarded as jokes resulting from the exploitation of Grice’s CP and maxims.

                In (1) Speaker B uses a long and prolix way to express the meaning of “Yes, I have”, thus violating the Manner maxim of “Be brief (avoid prolixity)”.

                (2B) result from the exploitation of Quality maxims in that the speaker seems to be telling the truth while deliberately misinterpreting speaker A’s “there”.

                (3B) is another instance of exploiting the Quality maxims. Though logically speaking it may be true that Speaker B has been helpful to A, we don’t usually respond to others’ thanks in this way. On one hand,

               (4B) is still another instance of exploiting the Quality Maxims in that Mr Smith’s office is really “not here”. On the other hand, Speaker B has violated the Quantity maxim of being as informative as is required since A needs more specific information than “not here”.

               (5B) is an indirect way of declining the offer. In terms of Grice’s maxims, this is a case of not being relevant.

                   In the last conversation, Speaker B uses a long and prolix way for the simple answer “Yes, he has”, and has thus violated the Manner maxim of “Be brief (avoid prolixity)”.

                    (1)A.Have you seen Peter today?

                               B.Well, if I didn’t deny seeing him I wouldn’t be telling a lie.

                    (2)A.Are you there?

                              B.No, I’m here.

                    (3)A.Thank you for your help, you’ve been most kind.

                               B.Yes, I have.

                     (4)A.Can you tell me where Mr. Smith’s office is?

                               B.Yes, not here.

                      (5)A.Would you like some coffee?

                                B.Mary’s a beautiful dancer.

                       (6)A.Has the postman been?

                                 B.He leant his bicycle against the fence, opened the gate, strode briskly down the path, stopped to stroke the cat, reached into his bag, pulled out a bundle of letters and pushed them through our letter box.

       在没有合适上下文的情况下,这些对话可以被看成是在利用格赖斯的合作原则及其准则开玩笑。

       在第一个对话里,说话人B用了一个冗长、繁琐的方式表达了“Yes, I have”(是的,我看见他了)的意思。他违反了“要简练”(避免冗长)这条方式准则。

        在第二个对话里,说话人B利用了质量准则,表面上看起来他是在说实话,实际上他故意曲解了A的“there”意思。

       第三个对话里的(3B)是另一个利用质量准则的例子。从逻辑上讲,说话人B可能真的对A做出了很大的帮助,但是我们一般不这样回应别人的感谢。

       从一个角度上说,(4B)又是一个利用质量准则的例子。斯密斯先生的办公室真的“not here”(不在这里)。但是,从另一个角度说,说话人B违反了数量准则,他没有提  

      供足够充分的信息量。说话人A需要的不仅仅是“not here”,他需要更具体的信息。

    (5B)是对说哈人A的提议的一种间接拒绝。从格赖斯准则的角度说,说话人B违反了“要有关联”这个准则。

       在最后一个对话里,说话人B用了一个冗长、繁琐的方式表达了一个简单的意思——“Yes, he has”(是的,他来过了),因而违反了“要简练(避免冗长)”这条方式准则。

 

8. What are the five types of illocutionary speech acts Searle has specified? What is the illocutionary point of each type?

       瑟尔把言外行为详细地分为哪五类?每一类的言外之力是什么?

                Representative: stating what the speaker believes to be true

                Directive:   trying to get the hearer to do something

                Commissive: committing the speaker himself to some future action

                Expressive:  expressing feelings or attitude towards an existing state

                Declarative:  bringing about some immediate changes by saying something

              阐述类:陈述说话者认为是真实的情况。

              指示类:试图使听话者做某事。

              承诺类:说话者本人承诺未来要做一些事情。

              表达类:表达对一现状的感情或态度。

              宣告类:通过说话引起骤变。

9. In terms of the Gricean theory, what maxim is exploited in the following?

“The Club” is a device for blocking an automobile’s steering wheel, thus protecting the car for being stolen. And one of its ads reads:

                            THE CLUB!

                     Anti-theft device for cars

                            POLICE SAY:

                             ‘USE IT’

                            OR LOSE IT

       Find two Chinese ads of the same type.

     The main maxim exploited here is the Manner maxim of “Avoid ambiguity”. The two tokens of “it” refer to two different things. Two Chinese ads of similar kind are 买一送一 and 要想皮肤好,早晚用大宝。

“车棒”是一种阻塞汽车方向盘的装置,能使其免遭偷窃。下面是它的一个广告:

            THE CLUB! (车棒)

            Anti-theft device for cars (反盗车装置)

             POLICE SAY:  (警察说)

           ‘USE IT’  (“用它吧”)

              OR LOSE IT   (还是丢了它)

            按照格赖斯理论,这里利用了什么准则?请找出两个同样的汉语广告。

       这个广告主要利用了方式准则中的“避免歧义”这一条次则。其中的两个it(它)指的不是同一个东西。类似的汉语广告是“买一送一”;“想要皮肤好,早晚用大宝”。

 

10. What are the four maxims of the CP?

      合作原则下属的四条准则是什么?

    The “co-operative principle”, proposed and formulated by P. Grice, a pragmatic hypothesis, is about that the participants must first of all be willing to cooperate; otherwise, it would not be possible to carry on the talk. The principle has the four following maxims:

                      1) Maxim of quantity:

                               a. make your contribution as informative as required.

                               b. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.

                      2) Maxim of quality:

                                a. Do not say what you believe to be false.

                                b. Do not say for which you lack adequate evidence.

                      3) Maxim of relation: Be relevant.

                      4) Maxim of manner:

                                 a. Avoid obscurity of expression

                                 b. Avoid ambiguity.

                                 c. Be brief.

                                 d. Be orderly.

              合作原则由美国逻辑学家和哲学家P 格赖斯提出,是语用学的一种理论。它认为,会话是人们在交际过程中的对话。会话受到一定条件的制约。为了会话交流的成功,需要双方朝一个共同的目的互相配合,作出努力。如果违反这些准则,就会产生会话含义(implicatures)即言外之意。这个总原则包括四条准则,它们分别是:

              量的准则:说出的话语所含的信息不能过多,也不能过少,只要能够满足交谈目的的信息量即可。

              质的准则:说出的话语尽可能真实,有证可查,至少是自己信以为真的话。

              关联准则:说出的话语要切题,不说与主题、论题或话题无关的话

              方式准则:说话清楚明白,简练而且有条理,避免意思含混和产生歧义。

 

 

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