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甘世安

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第七章 Historical Linguistics 历史语言学  

2011-08-01 18:03:50|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示

  历史语言学(historical linguistics),亦称历时语言学、演化语言学,是由索绪尔创立的一门研究语言变化的学科,它以历史比较法为基础,研究语言的亲属关系。它为现代语言学的建立奠定了坚实的基础,是语言学走上独立发展道路的标志。

历史语言学所关注的主要是以下三个方面:对被观察到的特定语言的变化进行描述和解释。对话语共同体(Speech communities)的历史进行描述。重构语言群的史前史,并确定她们之间的亲缘关系,将她们按亲疏远近归派到相应的语系语族语支中。

    比较语言学,又称历史比较语言学,把有关各种语言放在一起加以共时比较或把同一种语言的历史发展的各个不同阶段进行历时比较,以找出它们之间在语音、词汇、语法上的对应关系和异同的一门学科。利用这门学科一方面可以研究相关语言之间结构上的亲缘关系,找出它们的共同母语,或者明白各种语言自身的特点对语言教学起到促进作用,另一方面,可以找出语言发展、变化的轨迹和导致语言发展、变化的原因。十九世纪它就广泛地应用于印欧语的语言研究,取得了很大成就。奠基人是德国语言学家格里木(Grimn)、葆朴(Bopp)和丹麦语言学家拉斯克(Rask)。

在拉斯克、博普、格林等人相继对印欧语系作了大量调查研究的基础上,德国莱比锡大学的一批学者把当时历史比较语言学研究所取得的成果上升到理论的高度加以总结,正式为历史比较语言学提出系统的理论原则和方法。这批学者称为新语法学派。他们提出的最重要的原则是“语音规律无例外论”。根据这条原则,语音变化完全受特定的语音环境的支配。一旦发生了某个语音变化,那么,同一语言地区中处于该特定语音环境中的音全都发生变化,不应该有例外现象出现。语言学界最初对他们提出的这条原则普遍持怀疑态度,因为以前发现的定律确有很多例外现象无法解释。但是,随着研究的不断深入,人们逐渐认识到,早些时候所说的例外现象,其实也受着其他语音规律的支配,只是这些规律以前没有发现而已。

二、 概念定义

  historical Linguistics: It is a subfield of linguistics that deals with what happened to languages in the past and how that happened. Historical linguists are trying to trace the historical development of languages and to discover the links between languages and among language families.

历史语言学: 语言学的一个分支。它研究语言的过去和语言变化的原因。历史语言学家试图追溯语言发展的轨迹,以便发现各语言间甚至各语系间的联系。

the Great Vowel Shift: a series of systematic sound change in the history of English (1400-1600) that involved seven long vowels and consequently led to one of the major differences between English pronunciation and its spelling system. Look at below.

第七章   Historical Linguistics    历史语言学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

 

元音大替换: 英语发展史上的一系列有系统的音变,涉及到七个长元音的变化,是许多英语单词拼读不一的主要根源。下面是原因变化的事例。

 language family vs. family tree: a “ family tree” refers in a metaphorical sense to a group of languages that are or were related by means of tracking down to their origin. For instance, English and German share parental language and therefore they have many features in common. Within a language family, branches can be further sorted according to near or distant relationship. Two views are involved in discussing language relationship: family tree theory and wave theory. The former takes into account the origin that certain number of languages share, and the latter investigates the interactions among dialects. 

第七章   Historical Linguistics    历史语言学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

  

“谱系树”是个比喻说法,指具有共同来源即有亲属关系的语言组成一个群。如英语和日耳曼语之间,有共同的父系和祖父系,因而有许多共性。同一语系内,根据亲属关系的远近,再分出语族和语支。讨论语言的亲属关系,有两种观点,一是谱系理论,二是波浪理论。前者考虑同系语言的来源,后者注重语言中各方言相互作用。

第七章   Historical Linguistics    历史语言学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

 

三、理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What to conclude about the nature of language change from the linguistic division of English language history?

    如何从英语语言发展史期的划分来理解语言变化的实质?

It is generally accepted that the history of the English language is divided into three periods: Old English, Middle English and Modern English. Even though this division is arbitrary and made for the sake of research convenience, it reflects one fact: all living languages change with the time.

Language change is universal, inevitable, gradual and constant. The change is extensive, covering all aspects of the grammar.

关于英语发展史的时期划分,普遍认同的一种观点是, 它经历了三个阶段:古英语时期;中古英语时期;现代英语时期.尽管这样分段带有主观性(如为了研究便利),但它反映了一个事实,即所有的活的自然语言都在变化.

语言变化是普遍的,必然的,渐进的和持续的.语言变化范围广,涉及语法各个方面.

 

 

2. What are the major historical events that led to the English transition from one period to the next?

   导致英语从上一个阶段向下一阶段转变的主要历史事件有哪些?

Major periods: Old English (449-1100), Middle English (1100-1500), Modern English (1500-present)

Historical Events:

The Old English period began with the invasion of the British Isles by English – speaking Anglo – Saxons from Europe, and ended with the arrival of Norman French invaders historically known as the Norman Conquest.

The Middle English period is distinguished from the Old English period by the Norman Conquest, and from the Modern English period as the result of the cultural influence of the European renaissance movement.

主要阶段:古英语(449-1100),中古英语(1100-1500),现代英语(1500至今)

历史事件:古英语阶段的开始以来自欧洲的讲英语的盎格鲁 – 撒克逊人入侵不列颠群岛为标志,其结束是以诺曼法国入侵者的到达——历史上称为“诺曼征服” ——为标志。中古英语阶段和古英语阶段的分界线是“诺曼征服”,它和现代英语阶段区分开来是欧洲的文艺复兴运动这一影响的结果。

 

3. What are the main factors leading to language change?

        引起语言变化的主要因素有哪些?

    According to historical linguists, there are seven main factors in language change.

    1. sound assimilation: sound assimilation refers to the physiological effect of one sound on another. What happened to English concerning sound change includes “la-la sounds”, “nasalised  vowels” and “palatalizes /k/”

     2. simplification and regularity of rule: This involves plural forms of nouns and borrowed words. Language users tend to facilitate verbal communication by simplifying and regularizing elements of language.

     3. internal borrowing: In order to lessen the burden on memory, users have been trying to reduce irregular forms. “Cows” replaced “kine” ( old plural from of cow).

     4. elaboration: If one aspect of language is simplified, other aspect will be sophisticated so that ambiguity can be avoided. Word orders are less complex in Modern English than in Old English, because the latter had very rich word forms.

    5. sociological triggers: Norman Conquest brought large French vocabulary into English; European Renaissance marked the beginning of Modern English. Globalization is producing effect on languages all the world. Language varieties are result.

    6. cultural transmission: vocabulary and structure change across generations all the time.

     7. children’s approximation to adult grammar. Children tend to simplify grammar and are more ready to take less formal style. This results in change in grammar.

     据历史语言学家的研究,大致有七种因素影响语言变化。它们分别是

语音同化: 由于生理机制影响,一个音改变另一个音.典型的有英语的 “拉拉音”, “鼻化元音”以及”腭化音/k/”。

      简化并统一:语言使用者倾向简化并统一语言规则,为的是交流便利。特别是英语中不规则动词的过去式及名词的复数。

 内部借用:运用类推的方法,把语法的一部分规则普遍应用开来,从而减轻记忆负担。

 完善周全:如果语言的某个方面简化了,另个方面就得补充,以保证不因简化带来歧义。例如,古英语的词序较现代英语呈多样化,是因为它有复杂的词形和变格变位。

 社会因素:诺尔曼征服将大量法语词汇引进英语。欧洲文艺复新将英语带入现代时期。全球一体化正丰富着世界上众多的语言。

 文化传播:虽操同一种语言,但每一代人都有使用上的差异,新一代总是寻找能最好地表达新时代各方面的语言。

   儿童语言影响:孩子们倾向使用通俗大众化词汇和简洁的结构,这一点多少影响到语法的变化。

 

4. Why the word order of Old English is more varied than that of Modern English?

     古英语的词序为何要比现代英语的词序多样化?

       Old English has an elaborate case marking system to show if a constituent is the  subject, object, and so on, of a sentence, while Modern English has a much weaker system for case marking and therefore has to rely heavily on more rigid  word order to indicate grammatical relations.

   古英语有一复杂的格标记体系,以显示一个成分是一个句子的主语、宾语等,而现代英语的标记体系要简单得多,因而不得不在很大程度上依靠较为固定的词序来显示语法关系。

 

5. How to define the terms given?

   如何定义所给术语?

          1) apocope   2) epenthesis  3) cognate  4) semantic broadening   5) protolanguage  

          1) the deletion of a word – final vowel segment) the insertion of a consonant or vowel sound to the middle of a word

      3) a word in one language which is similar in form and meaning to a word in another language because both languages have descended from a common source

       4) the process in which the meaning of a word becomes more general or inclusive than its historically earlier meaning

       5) the original (or ancestral) form of a language family which has ceased to exist

                                1)词尾音脱落:略去位于词尾的一个元音音段。

                                2)插入音:在一个单词中间插入一个辅音或元音。

                                 3)同源词:一种语言中的一个词与另一种语言中的一个词,由于这两种语言是从同一来源发展而来的,在词形和意义上相似。

                                 4)语义的广义化:一个词的意义变得比其历史上的原初意义更为宽泛或更具有包容性的过程。

                                  5)原始语:一个语系已经消亡了原初(或原始)形式。

 

6. What is the original source language for each of the words provided?

   所给词汇源于何种语言?

All the words listed below were borrowed into English from other languages. For each word, look up its origin in a dictionary that provides etymological information (e.g., The American Heritage Dictionary).

                            1) alarm     6) check     11) giraffe     16) shampoo

                             2) algebra    7)denim     12)karate     17)size

                              3)astronaut   8)dinosaur   13)ketchup    18)sphere

                               4)blouse     9) fact       14)leviathan   19) sugar

                                5)cabin      10)ginger    15)pagoda     20)whiskey

下面所列英语单词是从其它语言中借来的。请在提供语源信息的词典中查出每个词的来源(如《美国承继词典》),并注意其在源语言中的词形:

                             1)alarm(警报)         11)giraffe(长颈鹿)

                             2)algebra(代数)        12)karate(空手道)ll

                             3)astronaut(宇航员)     13)ketchup(蕃茄酱)

                             4)blouse(宽松上衣)     14)leviathan(怪兽)

                             5)cabin(小屋)          15)pagoda(宝塔)

                             6)check(检查)         16)shampoo(洗发香波)

                              7)denim(粗斜纹棉布)   17)size(尺寸,大小)

                              8)dinosaur(恐龙)       18)sphere(范围,球体)

                               9)fact(事实)           19)sugar(食糖)

                              10)ginger(生姜)        20)whiskey(威士忌酒)

 

                                 1)Latin  2) Arabic  3)Greek  4)French  5)Latin

                                  6) Persian  7)French  8)Greek  9)Latin  10)Greek

                                   11) Arabic      12) Japanese  13) Chinese  14) Hebrew

                                    15) Portuguese  16) Hindi     17) French   18) Greek

                                    19) Sanskrit    20) Scottish

                          1)拉西语 2)阿拉伯语 3)希腊语 4)法语 5)拉丁语

                          6)波斯语 7)法语  8)希腊语 9)拉西语 10)希腊语

                          11)阿拉伯语 12)日语   13)汉语 14)希伯莱语

                           15)葡萄亚语 16)印地语 17)法语 18)希腊语

                           19)梵语 20)苏格兰语

 

7. What types of semantic change can be identified from the clues given?

   根据提示可以判断出何类语义演变?

Some words have changed their meanings from Old English to Modern English. We have noted that words can change their meaning by becoming more specialized or generalized, or simply acquiring a new meaning. Each of the following English words at one time had meaning that was quite different from its current one. Identify its semantic change as an instance of narrowing, broadening, or shift.

                               Word       Earlier Meaning         

                              1) accident       an event

                              2) aunt          father’s sister

                              3) baggage       a worthless person

                               4) box           a small container make of boxwood

                                5) butcher        one who slaughters goats

                                6) carry          transport by cart

                                7) moody        brave

                                 8) seduce        persuade someone to desert the duty

                                9) sell           give

                                10) shrewd       wicked

                                 11) sly          give

                                  12) spell         speak

                                   13) starve        die

                                  14) tide          time

                                  15) uncouth      unknown

                                    16) witch        male or female sorcerer

 

       Answer:

                             1) narrowing    2) broadening    3) shift    4) broadening  5)broadening     

                              6) broadening   7) shift    8) shift   9) narrowing    10) shift   11) shift

                               12) narrowing   13) narrowing  14) shift   15) shift  16) narrowing

 

       有些词语的意义从古至今发生了变化。通常的变化显示一定的方向:

或更具体、或更宽泛、或褒或贬,有些干脆取得新含义。下面所举单词的现代意义与其旧时含义就有很大不同。请分别确定其意义改变的方向。

第七章   Historical Linguistics    历史语言学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

 

8. What is the purpose of reconstruction in historical linguistics and the method employed    

   by historical linguists?

历史语言学中的重新构建的目的及历史语言学家所用的方法是什么?

Historical linguists aim at establishing, through the method of comparative reconstruction, the genetic relationship between and among various languages based on the evidence of systematic form – meaning resemblance in cognate items, and thereby to reconstruct the protolanguage of a language family.

历史语言学的目的是,以多种不同的语言中的同源词项在形式一意义方面系统的相似性的证据为基础,通过比较重建法,确定这些语言之间的亲缘关系,从而重新构建一个语系的原始语。

   

9. Can you offer examples to show sound changes in English language?

   能否举例说明英语的音变?

                       1. nicht    [nixt]      night    sound loss (x); vowel shift

                       2. hlud    [xlu:d]     loud     vowel shift; sound loss(x)

                       3. bridd   [bri:d]     bird      sound movement(r)

                       4. emty   [emti]      empty     sound addition

                       5. helpe   [helpi]     help      apocope

 

    10. What syntactic changes took place in English? Examples are necessary.

                 英语中发生了那些句法变化?举例说明。

                                And not gave you me never a kid.  (double negation)

                                He him saw.                   (object before verb)

                                 I deny it not.                   (not at the end)

                                 Then sent the king the dish.        (verb before subject)

 

 

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