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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第八章 Language Processing 语言过程  

2011-08-01 18:57:07|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示 

  此前各部分讨论的均是语言本身,即符号及其特征和系统等。以下将要讨论的是符号如何通过大脑产生意义,并成为交流工具。它涉及两个分支:心理语言学和认知语言学。

 无论是心理语言学还是认知语言学,其共同前提都一样:讨论语言是天生的课题没有实际意义,人类语言过程是后天的,是可以探讨的,可以有所作为。语言能力与表现受者人类经验的影响。人类语言过程呈现共性,可以被认识、掌握并利用。

虽说对于意识、记忆、反应等这些非物理性的范畴的研究迄今为止还停留在假说阶段,

但学界对一些基本问题已经达成框架性抑制认识。那些共识可从心理语言学和认知语言学这两个分支进行讨论。

心理语言学研究语言习得过程中,大脑发生着什么事。换言之,在母语获得过程、语言输入、语言输出过程当中,大脑的功能、方式有哪些?涉及对语码的识别、分解、编制等讨论,符号是怎样通过大脑认知产生意义并用作交流?还关注思维在语言过程中如何发挥作用的。而且,心理语言学所探讨的都是普世性原则和规律。

认知语言学研究人类是在客观世界中哪些经验与人类语言相联系;人类是如何观察、看待并概括世界存在的。关于人类通过语言对世界的观察、概括与描述,归纳起来大致有以下几种理论:识解,分类,构图,隐语、换喻、混成等。

 

二、概念定义

 

Holophrastic stage: Holophrastic stage is the first phase of language acquisition. The main linguistic accomplishments during this stage are control of the speech musculature and sensitivity to the phonetic distinctions used in the parents ' language. Shortly before their first birthday, babies begin to understand words, and around that birthday, they start to produce them. At this stage , words are usually produced in isolation ; this one一word stage can last from two months to a year . About half the words are for objects: food, body parts, clothing, vehicles, toys, household items, animals. There are words for actions, motions, and routines.

   

   独词句阶段: 独词句阶段是语言习得的第一阶段。在这个阶段主要的语言学的能力控制着母语中发音肌肉和语音区别的敏感。在他们快到一岁的时候,婴儿开始理解词语,在周岁的时候,他们开始产出。在这个阶段,词语经常是独立的出现;这种独词句阶段将从两个月持续到一岁。半数的单词是具体名词:食物、身体部分、衣服、交通工具、玩具、家庭用品和动物。还有一些表示动作、运动和常规的词语。

  

Two word stage: Two word stages is the second phase of language acquisition. Around 18 months, the child begins to learn words at a rate of one every two waking hours, and keeps learning that rate of faster through adolescence. The primitive syntax begins with two word strings. Children announce when objects appear , disappear , and  move about , point out their properties and owners , comment on people doing things and seeing things , reject and request objects and activities , and ask about who , what , and where . Those sequence already reflect the language being acquired: in 95% of them , these words are properly ordered.

  双词句阶段: 双词句阶段是语言习得的第二个阶段。这一阶段大概18个月左右,平均每两个小时学一个单词的速度学习单词,此速度或更快的学习速度将维持到整个青春期结束。简单的句法开始出现了双词串。儿童声称物体出现、消失和移动;指出它们的特性和主人;评论人们正在做事或看东西;拒绝或有求某个物品或动作;提问谁,怎样,哪里。这些顺序反映了语言已被习得,95%的单词已经被适当的排序。

 construal: Construal is the ability to conceive and portray the same situation In alternate ways through specificity , different mental scanning , directionality , vantage point , figure 一ground segregation etc .
 

  识解:识解或诠释是一种用交替的方式对同一场景进行想象和描述的能力,这种能力是通过详细程度、不同的心理扫描、指向性、优势点、图形—背景分离等成分加以实现的。

 

construal operations: Construal operations are conceptualizing processes used in language process by human beings . That is, construal operations are the underlying psychological processes and resources employed in the Interpretation of linguistic expressions.
  

识解操作:识解操作是人类语言处理过程中概念话的过程。或者说,识解操作是理解语言表达方式所使用的基本心理过程和心理来源。

figure - ground alignment: Figure 一ground alignment seems to apply to space with the ground as the prepositional object and the preposition expressing the spatial relational configuration . It also applies to human perception of moving objects. Since the moving object is typically the most prominent one, because It is moving, it is typically the figure , while the remaining stimuli constitute the ground .

图形——背景关系:图形——背景关系似乎可以运用于空间研究,背景充当了介词宾语和表征空间关系的介词。这种关系也适应于我们感知运动的物体。因为,物体是典型的突显物,成为典型的图形,而其余的刺激构成了背景。

 

subordinate level: Subordinate level is the level at which we perceive the differences between the members of the basic level categories.

 

下属层次:下属层次是我们可以感知基本层次范畴成员间区别的层次。

 image schema: image schema is a recurring , dynamic pattern of our perceptual Interactions and motor programs that gives coherence and structure to our experience.

意象图示:是我们的感知交互以及给我们经验以连贯的结构的反复出现的动态模式。

 

metaphor: Metaphor involves the comparison of two concepts in that one is construed In terms of the other It ' s often described in terms of a target domain and a source domain . The target domain is the experience being described by the metaphor and the source domain is the means that we use in order to describe the experience.

隐喻:隐喻涉及两个概念的比较,一个概念借用另一个概念加以识解或诠释。隐喻被描述为目标域和源域,目标域是隐喻所描述的经验,源域是人们用来描述经验的方法。

 

metonymy: Metonymy is a figure of speech that has to do with the substitution of the name of one thing for that of another.

转喻: 转喻是用某一物体名替代另一物体名的修辞方法。

ontological metaphors: Ontological ] metaphors mean that human experiences with physical objects provide the basis for ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc ., as entities and substances.

实体隐喻:指人类以生理实体的经验为基础,把事件、行为、情感、思想等抽象概念视为实体的方法。

Three - word utterances: three-word utterances stage is the third phase of language acquisition. Three一word utterances look like samples drawn from longer potential sentences expressing a complete and more complicated idea . For example , although the children never produced a sentence as complicated as Mother gave John lunch in the kitchen,they did produce strings containing all of its components in the correct order .

    三词句阶段: 三词句阶段是语言习得的第三个阶段。儿童的三词的表达看起来像是从描述完整、复杂意义的潜在长句中抽出样品。例如:虽然儿童没有产出像Mother gave John lunch in the kitchen.这样复杂的句子,但是却按照正确的顺序产出了包括所有组成成分的词串。

   structural metaphors: Structural metaphors play the most important role because they allow us to go beyond orientation and referring and give us the possibility to structure one concept according to another.

结构隐喻:结构隐喻有着十分重要的作用,因为它们使我们超越指向性和所指,给我们提供了基于另一概念构建一个概念的可能性。

generic space: Generic space maps onto each of the inputs. It reflects some common, usually more abstract, structure and organization shared by the inputs. It defines the core cross-space mapping between them..

类属空间:类属空间是对每一个输入空间进行映射,反映输入空间所共有的,通常是一些抽象结构与组织,并定义跨空间映射的核心内容。

blend space: Blend space is the fourth space onto which is partially projected by inputs I1 and I2 .

合成空间:合成空间是第四空间,是输入I1和I2部分地投射所行为的空间。

 

三、理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What is psycholinguistics?

什么是心理语言学?

It is the study of language in relation to the mind, with focus on the processes of language production, comprehension and acquisition. It takes upon itself the job of exploring the biological basis of human language, critical periods for child language acquisition, and the relationship between the language and thought.

心理语言学研究语言和心脑的关系,重点放在语言表达、理解和习得上。它探究人类语言的生物基础,儿童学习母语的关键期和过程,语言和思维的关系。

1.       What is the definition of cognitive linguistics?

认知语言学的定义是什么?

   Cognitive linguistics is a newly established approach to the study of language that emerged in the 1970s as a reaction against the dominant generative paradigm which pursues an autonomous view of language. Linguistics is based in human experiences of the world and the way they perceive and conceptualize the world.

     认知语言学是语言研究的全新方法,发轫于上世纪70年代,是对当时盛行的转换生成研究范式的反动,转化生成研究范式追求语言的自足性。认知语言学是基于人类对世界的经验以及他们感知和概念化世界的方式。

 

3. What is role and domain and reputation?

什么是角色? 什么是范围?什么是威信?

The “role” here is the part a person plays in a speaking situation, such as father, son, husband, wife, etc. Just as a person has different parts to play in various social situations, so a person talks to his mother in a different way from talking to his wife.

In the literature of socialinguistics, “domain” means a group of institutionalized social situations typically constrained by a common set of behavioral rules. For instance, the domain of the family is the house, that of religion is the church, and that of education is school, etc.

Al dialects and registers are regarded, or ought to be deemed, as grammatically well-formed by their speech communities, that is, each community has its own sub-grammar. However, a particular variety or language sometimes enjoys an established reputation in society. The relative reputation of a variety of speech depends upon the social and economic status of professions and regions that use it.

“角色”是指人们在具体交际场合占据本身应处的位置,并使用相匹配的语言。如,一个人是父亲,又是儿子,还是丈夫。随着角色或场所的变更,他必须调整自己的语言表达,也就是说,用正确、合适的语言说话。

“范围”或“领域”在社会文献中指的是一系列有一定机构的受一系列的共同的行为规范制约的社会场景。例如,家庭生活的范围是家,宗教活动的范围是教堂,教育的范围是学校。范围往往规定着人们的角色选择及话题选择。

一切方言或语域都被操语者看作是规范的。换句话说,每一社区都有它自己的小语法。但是,某一方言或语言变体有时可能比其它的要享有更高的威信。这种威信的实现取决于经济,社会地位。

 

4. What is dichotic listening?

什么是两耳分听?

It is a research technique which has been used to study how the brain controls hearing and language, with which subjects wear earphones and simultaneously receive different sounds in the right ad left ear, and are then asked to repeat what they hear. Judging by the repeated results, the left hemisphere of human brain dominates language.

一种用于研究大脑是如何控制听力和语言的方法;接受实验者带着耳机,左耳和右耳同时听到不同的信息,然后被要求说出所听到的信息。据重复实验的结果,人的左脑控制语言。

 

5. What is the critical period?

什么是关键期?

It refers to an early period of one’s life extending to the age of puberty, during which the human brain is most ready to acquire language naturally and effortlessly, a period that coincides with the period of brain lateralization for language functions

关键期理论研究表明,从两岁到青春期这段时间,是人的一生中最佳的语言学习时期,因为大脑处于自然而又不费力地习得语言的最佳状态。母语的习得与大脑语言机能侧化的时期吻合。

 

6. What is code-switching?

什么是语码转换?

       It means that a speaker does not have to follow a certain variety or dialect all the time but that he can turn from the standard language to the sub-standard one, from one dialect to another, from one accent to another, from formality to informality, from politeness to impoliteness, even from one language to another language in a bilingual or multilingual community.

        一个讲某种语言的人,在客观上用不着总是讲一种方言或语言变体。他可以随语境、范围、角色的变化而转换语码,即调节和变换所操语言的变体。从标准语(普通话)到次标准语,从一种方言到另一种方言,从一种口音到另一种口音,从正式/官方语体到非正式语体,从礼貌到非礼貌,甚至由于社团处于双语状态而不得不经常转换语言。

 

7. What is cerebral cortex? And what is brain lateralization?

什么是大脑皮层? 什么是大脑侧化?

The cerebral cortex is the outside surface of the brain which receives messages from all the sensory organs and where human cognitive abilities reside.

And brain lateralization is the hemispheric specialization or dominance for language.

大脑的外表层,也是最重要的部分,它接受所有感觉器官传来的信息,是人的认知能力(如推理、语言、音乐等)所存在的区域。

大脑侧化指人类生理特有的一种现象,即随着年龄的增长,大脑的左侧分管语言的认知机能和感知机能不断发展,直至青春期后期。绝大多数人的侧化发生在脑左侧。

8. What are the various aspects of process of language production?

语言产生过程有那些方面?

Psycholinguists are also interested in the way in which a speaker formulates some intention, or expresses some idea in speech, in a conversational setting or otherwise. Various aspects of process of language production, such as conceptualization and linearization, grammatical and phonological encoding, self-monitoring, self-repair and gesturing during speech have been topics of interest.

       The first focus is on the generation of simple utterances. Among the simples utterances we produce are single words. The ability to produce words is, of course, a core ingredient of the ability to produce larger utterances. Therefore, single word access has been and still is a central research topic. Multiple word utterance requires the speaker to run the word access procedure repeatedly. The issue is whether these access procedures overlap in time and whether they mutually interact. In

Language comprehension, as we have discussed, comprehenders must map the spoken or written input onto entries in the mental lexicon and must generate various levers if syntactic, semantic, and conceptual structure. In language production, people are faced with the converse problem. They must map from a conceptual structure to words and their elements.

     心理语言学也关注在对话的背景中或其他的情况下,说话者如何用言语阐明意图和表达观点。语言产出过程的方方面面都成为研究的对象,如概念化、线性化、语法和语音编码、自我控制、自我纠正、以及话语中的手势。

     简单话语的生成是第一个关注点。单个的词语时我们所产出的最简单的话语。产出词语的能力必然是生成更复杂话语能力的核心组成部分。因此,单个词语的检索曾经是而且仍然是研究的中心。多词汇的话语要求说话者多次重复进行单词的检索。仍然不清楚的是这些多个词语检索过程是否在时间上有重叠以及它们之间是否会相互作用。在前面谈过的语言理解过程中,理解者必需把口头或书面的输入和心理词汇中的条目对照,而且必须生成多层次的句法、语义、概念结构。而在语言产出过程中却面临着相反的问题,我们必须把概念结构和词汇以及它的成分相匹配。

 

9. What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?

什么是萨丕尔-沃尔夫假说?

It is a theory put forward by the American anthropological linguist Sapir and his student Whorf (and also a belief held by some scholars),which states that the way people view the world is determined wholly or partly by the structure of their native language. Their theory has two thrusts: linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity.

由美国人类学语言学家萨丕尔他的学生沃尔夫提出的理论(一些学者也持这一观点),包括两个思想:语言决定论和语言相对论。他们认为,人们看世界的方式完全或部分地由他们母语的结构决定,语言还影响思维。

 

10. What is intrepersonal communication?

 什么是自我交际?

It refers to the process of using language within the individual to facilitate one’s own thought and aid the formulation and manipulation of concepts

自我交际指语言使用者本人用语言促进自己的思维以及帮助形成和使用概念的过程。

 

11. In what cortical regions are speech and language thought to be localized?

据认为言语和语言能力位于大脑皮层的哪几个区?

In what have come to be known as Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area and angular gyrus, all located in the left hemisphere of the brain.

位于被称为布罗卡区、韦尼克区和角形脑回的区域,它们都位于大脑左半球。

12. Describe the three categories of conceptual metaphors.

请描述三类概念隐喻。

  Lakeoff and Johnson classify conceptual metaphors into three categories: ontological metaphors, structural metaphors and orientational metaphors.

 Ontological metaphors mean that human experiences with physical objects provide the basis for ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc., as entities and substances. Ontological metaphors can serve various purposes, By ontological metaphors we give bounded surfaces to less clearly discreet entities (mountains hedges, street corners)d categories events, actions and states as substances. In ontological metaphors it is our experiences of interacting with physical bounded bodies which provide the basis for categorizing events, activities, ideas etc., as entities and substances.

         Structural metaphors play the most important role because they allow us to go beyond orientation and referring and give us the possibility to structure one concept according to another. This means that structural metaphors are grounded in our experience. Structural metaphors imply how one concept is metaphorically structuring one concept in terms of another.

  Orientational metaphors give a concept a spatial orientation. They are characterized not so much by structuring one concept in terms of another, but by a co0occurrence in our experiential basis, which link together the two parts of the metaphor. The link verb “is”, part of the metaphor, should be seen as the link of two different co-occurring experiences. For example, MORE IS UP. This metaphor is grounded in the co-occurrence of the two different kinds of substance rise. Orientational metaphors are based on human physical and cultural experience. For example, in some cultures the future is in front of us, whereas in others it is in back of us. Now let us study some orientational metaphors and give a brief hint about how each metaphorical concept might have arisen from human physical and cultural experience.

 

     Lakoff&Johnson(1980)把隐喻分为三类:实体隐喻、结构隐喻和空间隐喻。

        实体隐喻是指人类以自身经验和生理实体为基础,把事件、行为、情感、思想等抽象概念转换为实体。实体隐喻可应用于各种目的。实体隐喻可以给非清晰地实体(山、篱笆、街角)一个有界的平面,把事件、行为和状态概念化为实体。

        结构隐喻起着十分重要的作用,因为它们使我们超越指向性和所指,给我们提供了基于一个概念构建另一个概念的可能性。这意味着结构隐喻根植于我们的经验。结构隐喻意味着一个概念是以另一个概念隐喻为基础而构建隐喻的。

        方位隐喻给概念一个空间方位,它们不是以一个概念构建另一个概念为特征,而是以不断发生的经验为特征。方位隐喻以连接隐喻两部分的经验为基础,连接动词“is”为隐喻句的一部分,应被视为同时发生不同经验的连接。例如:“多是向上(MORE IS UP)”这句隐喻基于人类生理和文化经验。例如,在一些文化中,未来在我们的前面,而在另一些文化中,未来在我们的后面。

 

13. What is that one research technique that has provided linguists with information about the localization of speech and language in the brain?

何种研究方法为语言学家提供了有关言语和语言能力在大脑中的位置的信息?

A research technique known as the “dichotic listening” has been used to study how the brain controls hearing and language. When performing a dichotic listening task, subjects wear earphones and simultaneously receive different sounds in the right and left ear, and are asked to repeat what they hear. Dichotic listening research makes use of the generally established fact that anything experienced n the right – hand side of the body is processed in the left hemisphere of the brain, and vice versa. During dichotic listening experiments, subjects reported hearing the language spoken to their right ears prior to the language spoken to their left ears. The results provide empirical support for the belief that the left hemisphere of the brain is dominant for language and speech.

一种被称为“两耳分听”的研究方法已经被用来研究大脑是如何控制听力与语言的。当进行两耳分听实验时,接受实验者带着耳机,左耳和右耳同时听到不同的声音,然后被要求说出所听到的内容。两耳分听实验利用了人们已普遍接受了事实:人体右半身所感受到的任何信息都在大脑左半球进行处理,反之亦然。在两耳分听实验中,被实验者先说出了右耳听到的话,而不是左耳。这一结果为下面的观点提供了实验证据:大脑左半球支配着语言和言语。

 

14. Many left – handed people have their language centers in the right hemisphere of the brain. What type of result would we expect to obtain from such people on a dichotic listening task?    

许多左撇子的语言训区位于大脑的右半球。对这样的人进行两耳分听实验,我们期望得到怎样的结果呢?

Since the left – handed subjects have language centers resident in their right hemisphere of the brain, they would hear the auditory signal given to the left ear first. This is because it takes a shorter time for the signal to go directly from the left ear to the right side of the brain than it does for the signal spoken to the right ear to travel first to the left hemisphere and then onto the right hemisphere for processing.

由于接受实验的左撇子的语言中枢位于其大脑右半球,他们会首先听到左耳接受到的声音信号。这是因为,右耳接受到的信号先到达左半球,然后再传到右半球进行处理。与此相比,左耳接受到的信号直接到达右半球,这样所用的时间要短一些。

 

15. What do you think is the processes in language perception, comprehension and production?

语言的感知、理解和表达过程是怎样的?

From the perspective of psycholinguistic analysis, language use in terms of perception, comprehension and production follows a certain pattern which involves the coordination of various language centers. For example, when we speak, words are drawn from Wernicke’s area and transferred to Broca’s area, which determines the details of their form and pronunciation. The appropriate instructions are then sent to the motor area which controls the vocal tract to physically articulate the words. When we hear something and try to comprehend it, the stimulus from the auditory cortex is transmitted to Wernick’s area, where it is then interpreted. When perceive a visual image, a message is sent to the angular gyrus, where it is converted into a visual pattern.

从心理语言分析的角度来看,感知、理解和表达等方面的语言应用遵从着某种模式,这种模式涉及各个语言中枢的协调。例如,我们说话时,先从韦尼克区提取词语,然后把它们传到布罗卡区,再由布罗卡区决定词语的具体形式和发音。然后适当的指令又被传到控制发音系统以真正发出这些词语的音的肌动区。我们听到一些信号并试图理解它时,来自听觉皮层的刺激被传到韦尼克区,在那儿得到解释。我们感知到一个视觉形象时,一种信息被传到角形脑回,在那儿被转化成视觉型式。

 

16. What does the aphasic substitution reveal about how words are likely to be stored in the brain? 

失语症患者的词语替换体现了单词可能是以何种方式存储在大脑中的?

When asked to read a list of words, some aphasic patients substitute other words for those printed on the list. Often the substituted words are similar or related to the printed words, as is shown by the data given below.

Words for Aphasics to read    Words Uttered by Aphasics

abroad                    overseas

canary                    parrot

decide                  decision

liberty                  freedom

remember               memory

portray                 portrait

short                   small

speak                  discussion

Evidently, what is actually stored in the brain is meaning instead of form, and categorical information, instead of discrete information.

要求一些失语症患者读出一系列单词时,他们会用其它一些词来替换这些词。他们所读出的词通常是和所给的词近似或有关系,如下面给出的材料所示。

让失语症患者念的单词    失语症患者读出的单词

abroad(往国外;)        overseas(海外;)

canary(金丝雀)         parrot(鹦鹉)

decide(拿定)           decision (决定)

liberty(自由)           freedom (无束缚)

remember(记得)        memory(记忆)

portray(描画)          portrait (画像)

short (短少)           small (小)

speak (讲话)          discussion(讨论)

 

显然,真正存储于大脑中的不是形式而是意义,不是毫无联系的信息而是同属于某一范畴的信息。

 

17. What evidence can be given for the view that there is a critical period for language acquisition?

有何证据表明语言学习有一个关键期?

The critical period for language acquisition coincides with the time during which the brain’s hemispheric lateralization for language and other cognitive skills takes place. It is believed that the end of the critical period corresponds to the completion of this lateralization process. Evidence in support of the critical period hypothesis comes from the fact that children acquiring their first language beyond the critical age are hardly successful, such as the case of “Genie.”

Aphasic studies also seem to support the critical period hypothesis: it is reported that preadolescent children suffering damage to the left hemisphere are able to transfer their language centers to the right hemisphere and reacquire the lost linguistic skills. Further supporting evidence comes from studies in the field of second language acquisition: adults experience much greater difficulty in learning a second or foreign language, in contrast to young children, who are known to be excellent second language learners.

语言习得的关键期与大脑半球语言和其它认知技能侧化的时期吻合。关键期假设认为,关键期的结束与这种侧化过程的完全吻合。证实关键期假设的证据是这一事实:关键期之后的儿童习得第一语言几乎无法成功,“吉妮”案例就说明了这一点。

对失语症的研究似乎也证实了关键期假设:据报道,青春期关左半球受损的儿童能够把语言中枢转移到右半球,并重新习得丢失的语言技能。第二语言习得研究领域也提供了一些证据:人们知道,儿童可以很容易地学会第二语言,与它们相比,成人学习第二语言名外语时遇到的困难要大得多。

 

18. According to the strong version of the Sapir – Whorf hypothesis, language determines speakers’ perceptions and patterns their way of life. How in your view does language relate to thought and culture?

根据萨丕尔-沃尔夫假设的强假设,语言决定了说话者的感知和生活方式。你认为语言与思维和文化是什么关系?

Language does not so much determine the way the speaker perceives the world as it functions as a means by which information can be stored and retrieved, by which a culture transmits its belief, values and norms, and by which the speaker interacts with other members of the culture.

语言并不能决定操该种语言的人感知世界的方式,它主要是作为储存和回忆信息的工具,作为一种文化传递它的信仰、价值观和规范的工具,作为操该语言的人与其文化中的其它人相互影响的工具而起作用。

 

19. What are the arguments against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

对萨丕尔-沃尔夫假设有哪些质疑?

       The arguments are directed at the strong version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language determinism. It concerns excessively with surface structures of individual languages. In fact, all languages are fundamental of the same universal human character, including the lexico-semantic and syntactic components of language and all normal human beings are gifted with the same linguistic faculty and cognitive capacity. The flaws of that hypothesis can be revealed through the following analysis.

        1. Different grammatical structures do not mean that speakers of different languages differ in thinking logic or reasoning.

        2. Equivalent translation is always possible in spite of the fact that in practice there are hardly any people in perfect control of two genetically different languages.

        3. People who have good command of two genetic-unrelated languages do not have “double minds” or do not have to change their thinking logic when speak foreign tongue. 

        质疑是针对萨丕尔-沃尔夫理论的强假设。它过多地关注语言的表层结构。其实,所有的语言根本说来全都是人类共有的,包括词汇、语义、句法等。所有人都具有相同的语言能力和认知能力。所以,该假设的缺陷从以下方面可以看出。

          1.不同的语言法则不等于操不同语言者的思维不同。

          2. 对等的翻译是绝对可能的,尽管几乎没人完美地驾御两种不同的语言。

          3.熟练掌握两种不同语言的人并没有两个脑子,也不必在讲外语时改变自己的思维方式。

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