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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第十章 Language and Teaching 语言与外语教学  

2011-08-02 00:21:21|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、核心提示

 

外语学习显然不同于母语习得。母语习得是伴随着年龄和经验的增长而发展,习得者始终处在自然社会的互动中。分析图1与图2,我们很容易得出以下结论:幼儿的母语习得过程没有教师,而外语学习者需要外语教师的媒介与指导;幼儿的母语习得始终受着内在需求的驱动,是他们生存的需要(烤语言获得食物,交流,理解,帮助,安慰等,其习得过程是自发的,而外语学习者没有内在的生存需求,因为母语完全可以满足其生存需要,其学习过程是被督促的;幼儿的母语习得的环境自然,语言与环境和是一体,无需其它媒介,外语学习者必须借助教师,缺乏学习和使用外语的自然环境,其人为性大大降低学生的积极性和主动性。

外语学习涵盖两个方面:一是教什么;二是如何教。关于教什么的问题,涉及对语言本质与特征的回答;涉及重知识还是重技能, 诸如教生物、历史、语文、英语等,各自的内容与关注点肯定迥异,因为受着不同课程性质的制约。关于如何教的问题,涉及教师角色学生角色、课堂模式、传授载体、测试方式等。

第十章   Language and Teaching   语言与外语教学 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

 

二、 概念定义

 

behaviorist learning theory:It is a theory of psychology which, when applied to first language acquisition, suggests that the learner’s verbal behavior is conditioned or reinforced through association between stimulus and response.

行为主义学习理论:这是一个心理学理论,当应用于第一语言习得时,意思是指,学习者的语言行为是受到刺激与反应的关系的制约与强化的。

 

contrastive analysis vs. error analysis:contrastive analysis is a comparative procedure used to establish linguistic differences between two languages so as to predict learning difficulties caused by interference from the learner’s first language and prepare the type of teaching materials that will reduce the effects of interference.

Error analysis is an approach to the study and analysis of the errors made by second language learners which suggests that many learner errors are not due to the learner’s mother tongue interference but reflect universal learning strategies such as overgeneralization and simplification of rules.

对比分析法是一种对比方法,用于确认两种语言的不同之处,以便预测学习者由于第一语言干扰而导致的学习难点,从而准备可以减少干扰对第二语言学习的影响的教学材料。

错误分析法是一种研究和分析第二语言学习者所犯错误的方法,它指出,语言学习者所犯的许多错误不是母语干扰所致,而是体现了一些普遍的学习策略,如概括过度和规则简化。

Fossilization: It refers to a process that sometimes occurs in second language learning in which incorrect linguistic features (such as the accent of a grammatical pattern) become a permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes in the target language.

语言固化: 是有时出现在第二语言学习中的一个过程,在这一过程中,一些不正确的语言特点(如语音或语法模式)成为学习者说、写目标语时的一种恒久的方式的一部分。

 

Interlanguage: it refers to the approximate language system that a second language learner constructs which represents his or her transitional competence in the target language

中介语: 指第二语言学习者在学习过程中所构建的近乎目标语的语言体系,它体现了学习者在目标方面的过渡性语言能力.

What is caretaker speech:  the simple, modified speech used by parents, bay – sitter, etc. when they talk to young children who are acquiring their native language.

幼儿保育人言语: 指父母或保姆等人与正在习得本族语的儿童谈话时所使用的简单的,加以调适的言语。

input hypothesis:According to Krashen 's INPUT HYPOTHESIS, learners acquire language as a result of comprehending input addressed to them. Krashen brought forward the concept of " i + 1 " principle , i.e . the language that learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still be challenged to make progress . Input should neither be so far beyond their reach that they are overwhelmed, nor so close to their current stage that they are not challenged at all.

输入假设: 根据Krashen的输入假设,学习者们习得语言是理解输入的结果。Krashen提出i+1原则,也就是说学者们接触到语言应该稍高于他们的现有水平,这样他们既可以理解大部分的语言又可以面对一定的挑战从而取得更大的进步。输入既不能难度过大让人望而生畏,也不能过于接近学习者现有的水平,而不具有任何挑战性。

errors and mistakes:Mistakes often occur when learners fail to perform their competence. In other words, the learner has already learned the knowledge or skill but simply fails to function correctly due to lack of attention or other factors.  Errors usually arise from the learner’s lack of knowledge; it represents a lack of competence.. In other words, the learner does not know the right form or is unable to use language correctly.

错误:是当学习者没有发挥出自己的能力时出现的,也就是说,学习者已经学会了某种只是或是技能,但是由于不注意或者其他因素的影响没能正确地使用语言。

语误:通常是有用学习者只是不足所致,说明能力不足。换言之,学习者不知道正确的形式或者不能正确地使用语言。

 

三、理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

   

1.language acquisition? How does a child acquire his mother tongue?

什么是语言习得?儿童是怎样习得母语的?

 It is a general term used to refer to the development of a person’s first, second, or foreign language. That is, how he understands and to speak the language of his community.

The essentials of one’s native language are acquired in the period between about two-year old and four-year old. This is usually regarded as the critical period for mother tongue acquisition. The following demonstrates how a child develops his first language. Babbling period from the birth to six months; syllables up to eight months; simple commands up to one year old; beginning of speech at 18 months; two-word phrases when two years old; grasp of 1000 words plus grammatical complexity when three years old; mastery of the essentials of mother tongue at the age of four. 

语言习得主要指儿童对母语的逐渐学习和掌握,也兼指其它语言的学习。

儿童学习母语始于听力和口语,大约发生在两岁至四岁之间。该阶段被称为学习母语的关键时期。儿童母语习得大致阶段为:出生到六个月,发一系列音,咿呀学语;八个月时,有了音节;一岁时,可以发简单命令;一岁半时,开始口语交流;两岁时,进入双词阶段;三岁就会一千左右单词和复杂语法;四岁左右有了母语基础。

      

2. Why should language teachers learn some knowledge of linguistics?

为什么语言教师要学习一些语言学知识?

       Some knowledge of linguistics will not only help language teachers to better understand the nature of language, but also helps them better understand how to teach language. Theoretical views of language explicitly or implicitly inform the approaches and methods adopted in language teaching. Language teachers do need a theory (may be theories ) of language in order to teach language effectively , and they need to know at least how the language they teach works . To discover the real language and to obtain some understanding of it, language teachers may well turn to linguistics. Many language learning theories are proposed based on certain linguistic theories. In fact, knowledge in linguistics lies at the root of understanding what language learners can learn, and how they actually learn and what they learn ultimately. Therefore, linguistics has always played an important role in the studies of language acquisition and learning.

    对于语言教师而言,掌握一些语言学的知识不仅有助于他们进一步领悟语言的本质,也有助于他们深入理解教学方法。语言学理论直接或间接地影响着语言教学的途径和方法。为了使教学活动更加行之有效,教师们有必要学习一种(或者多种)语言学理论;他们至少应该了解自己教的那门语言有哪些规则。要发现真实的语言并且对他们有所理解,语言教师也需要一些语言学知识。很多语言学习理论是基于语言学理论建立的。事实上,如果要了解语言学习者们能够学到什么,怎样学习,和最终能够到达什么水平,我们最根本地还是要学习一些语言本身的知识。因此,语言学在语言习得和语言学习领域内扮演着十分重要的角色。

3. What is focus on form?  

什么是关注形式?

   The key point in focus on form is that although language learning should generally be meaning-focused and communication-oriented, it is still necessary and beneficial to focus on form occasionally. Focus on form often consists of an occasional shift of attention to linguistic code features---by the teacher and / or one or more students---triggered by perceived problems with comprehension or production..

关注形式的要点是认为虽然语言学习总体上应以关注意义为中心,为交流服务,我们偶尔关注语言形式仍然是有益并且是必要的。“关注语言形式”的做法是在理解或语言输出遇到问题时,教师和/或一个或多个学生暂时将注意力转移到某个语法规则上。

 

4. What is instrumental motivation? And what is integrative motivation?

什么是工具性学习动机? 什么是介入性学习动机?

     Instrumental motivation refers to the learner’s desire to learn a second language because it is useful for some functional, “instrumental” goals, such as getting a job, passing an examination, or reading for information.

Integrative motivation refers to the aim of a second language learner to integrate himself or herself with the second language community.

工具性学习动机指学习者由于一些有用的功能性或“工具性”目的,如求职、应试或阅读以获得信息,而学习第二语言的那种欲望。它与介入性学习动机相对。

介入性学习动机是指第二语言学习者为了同第二语言环境交融而学习的动机或欲望。

 

5. What is telegraphic speech?  What is holophrase? What is over-extension?

 什么是电报式言语? 什么是单词句? 什么是扩展过度?

Telegraphic speech refers to the early speech of children, so called because it lacks the same sorts of words which adults typically leave out of telegrams (such as non – substantive words and inflectional morphemes)

Holophrase is a single word that appears in children’s early speech and functions as a complex idea or sentence.

Over-extension refers to the fact that children over-extend early words, such as “Daddy” “mummy” etc. As a result they are likely to call all men daddy and all women mummy.

儿童的早期言语,之所以这样叫,是因为其中缺少的词语类似成人电报中省略的词语(如非名词性词语和屈折性词素)。

儿童早期言语中出现的单独一个词,能够表达复杂的思想或充当一个句子。

       扩展过度指在独词阶段,儿童无法一下子就习得词汇全部意义,经过一段时间后,他可能发现该词还有其它的意思或没有那么多意思.如,叫所有男的 “爸爸”.

 

6. What is interference? What is cross-association?

什么是干扰? 什么是交互联想?

       Language interference can be defined as the use of elements from one language while speaking another. Instances of mother tongue interference can be found at the level of pronunciation, morphology, syntax, vocabulary and meaning, and can be predicted by contrasting grammatical or other systems of two languages. In other words, we can predict and describe the patterns that will cause difficulty in learning and those that will not, by comparing systematically the language and its corresponding culture of the student.

        Cross-association refers to the internal interference, namely, the close association of two or more linguistic items that share some similarities in one or more aspects but differ in others. Cross-association operates at all levels of language, from the phonological to the syntactic.

语言干扰可定义为:当讲某种语言时,同时使用着另一语言的规则.该现象出在各个层次上,有语音的,词形的,句法的,词汇的等.可以说,通过比较学生母语及文化背景,能够预测出他易犯何类错误或会遇到那些障碍.

交互联想指内在的干扰,即具有共性而又有差异的语项在记忆和运用中的牵连和混淆.语言学习和运用的任何一个水平上都可能出现交互联想.

 

7. What is the biological basis of child language acquisition?

儿童语言习得的生物基础是什么?

Language acquisition is a human species – specific capacity. All children are biologically equipped with this capacity at birth. That is, children are born with the neural prerequisites for language development and language use. Because language acquisition is biologically cased, all normal children, except those with mental or physical impairments, are capable of acquiring at least one language during the early period of life, a period corresponding to the period of neural maturation of the brain. Because language acquisition is a natural endowment, children, regardless of their cultural tradition, intelligence, and opportunities to receive formal instruction and correction, follow the same natural route of language development and acquire their native language with equal success.

语言习得是人类特有的能力。所有的儿童生来就具有这种能力,即儿童生来就具有语言发展与语言使用的神经系统基础。由于语言习得以生物特征为基础,因而除了那些有心理和生理缺陷的儿童,所有正常儿童都能在人生早期习得至少一种语言,这一时期与其大脑神经的成熟时期相吻合。由于语言习得是一种天赋的能力,因此,无论儿童的文化传统,智力和接受正规教学与纠错的机会如何,都遵循相同的语言发展自然轨道,并能同样成功地习得他们的本族语。

 

8. What is supporting evidence for the argument that children acquiring language do not simply memorize words and sentences?

有何证据表明儿童并非仅仅通过记忆单词与句子来习得语言的?

Children’s acquisition of language is a rule – governed behavior. What they acquire is a set of rules for generation an infinite number of sentences. If language was learned through imitation and memorization of individual words and expression, children would only speak the kind of language that they were exposed to. How ever, it is widely recognized that children can comprehend sentences that they have never heard before, and they are heard producing utterances that cannot be possibly uttered by adults. Many errors in the speech of children are not the result of imitation and memorization but the result of overgeneralization of rules. For example, the way a child learns to negate sentences and form questions can be considered examples of overgeneralization in syntax acquisition.

儿童的语言习得是一种有规可循的行为。他们习得的是一套可生成无数句子的规则。如果语言是通过模仿和记忆不同的单词和表达方式而习得的,那么儿童只会说他们所能接触到的语言。但是,人们普遍认识到,儿童能够理解他们从未听到过的句子,并能说出一些成人不可能说出过的话语。许多儿童的言语错误不是由于模仿和记忆而是由于概括过度的结果。例如,儿童学习说否定句和疑问句的方式可以认为句法习得中概括过度的例子。

 

9. How do you account for the phenomenon of young children’s apparent retrogression? For example, from saying “went” and “came” to “goed’ and “comed”.

如何解释儿童一些明显的语言退化现象?如:从能说 went和came退为反而说goed和comed。

Children first learn irregular forms of verbs like “went” and “came” as individual words in regular form. Later when they encounter more instances of regular verbs denoting past events with inflectional “-ed” morphemes, they realize that the addition of “-ed” to a verb is a rule that changes the present time to the past time. At this stage, children tend to generalize this rule and apply it to all verbs, and consequently are heard producing the “ill” forms such as “goed” and “comed”. It must be pointed out that errors from overgeneralization should not be viewed as negative, but as evidence of normal progress in language acquisition.

儿童最初是把一些不规则动词形式如went和came作为单独的规则动词来学习的,后来,当他们遇到更多的规则动词都是以屈折词素-ed来表示过去的事情时,他们意识到,在动词后加 –ed能将现在时变为过去时。在此阶段,儿童倾向于概括出这一规则并将其应用于所有动词,因此我们听到他们说出goed和 comed这些错误形式。应该指出的是,概括过度导致的错误不应被视为是有害无益的,而应被视为语言习得在正常地进展的证据。

 

10. What happens to a young child’s speech when he/she tries to make negative statement?

 在幼儿语言发展过程中,他们通常是如何表达否定式的?

Speech sample of a child:

      No baby drink milk.       No it won’t fit.

No doggie.               No more noise.

      No ready go.             No go in.           

From the six samples, we may conclude that the child is at the early multiword stage, during which negative sentences are usually formed with the negative “No” placed in the sentence – initial position.

从以上某儿童的言语中选出的六例,我们可以判断,该儿童正处于语言发展的多词句阶段初期。在这一阶段,否定句通常是通过在句子开头加否定词“No”构成。

 

11. What might we expect a young child to use some words employed by adults? Illustrate your points with specific examples and consider the fact that children tend to overgeneralize morphological rules.

根据过度概括这一事实,你能做出哪些判断?请用例子来说明。

Examples:

  Words actually applied by adults  成人实际用的形式      

1) ate    2) bought    3) did    4) fell   5) geese  

6) got   7) himself   8) mem   9) mice  10) put ( past )

11) sheep (plural)   12) sprang  13) took

Utterances that are possibly made  儿童可能用的形式

1) eated  2) buyed   3) doed   4) falled  5) gooses 

6) getted  7) hisself  8) mans  9) mouses  10) putted

11) sheeps 12) springed 13) taked

 

12. How do you comment on the two contrasting views with reference to the behaviorist learning model and the nativist biological model?

如何看待行为主义学习理论和生物先天论这两种相对立的观点?

Different theories of child language acquisition have been advanced. They are concerned with understanding the nature or process of language learning. The two contrasting views. One is behaviorist and other is nativist.

The Behaviorist view:

Language acquisition is a process of habit formation. Language is learned through stimulus and response. Reinforcement of selected responses is the key to understanding language development. Children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong.

The Nativist view:

Language acquisition is the species – specific property of human beings. Children are born with an innate ability to acquire language. They are predisposed to develop their native language along a universal, predetermined route through similar stages. They go about acquiring the grammar of their native language using principles unique to language acquisition.

   语言学家们提出了不同的儿童语言习得理论。它们对于语言学习的过程和本质有不同的理解、描述及解释。两种相对立的观点是行为主义和先天决定论。

行为主义理论:

语言习得是一个习惯培养的过程。语言是通过刺激与反应学习的。对有选择的反应的强化是理解语言发展的关键。儿童学会正确地使用语言,是因为他们正确的言语得到积极强化而错误的言语得到消极强化。

先天性理论:

语言习得是人类特有的特性。儿童生来就具有内在的习得语言能力,他们生来就具有习得本族语的能力,其习得过程沿着一条普遍的、自然的轨道,并经历相似的阶段。他们使用语言习得的特有天赋来习得族语的语法。

 

13. What do you say about one major factor which contributes to the difficulties most second language learners encounter?

能否谈一谈导致大多数第二语言学习者学习困难的某个主要因素?

It has been suggested by some SLA scholars that learning difficulties confronting adult L2 learners arise from the fact that for most people a second language is learned in a formal setting, rather than acquired in a natural environment.

Language acquisition is contrasted with language learning on the ground that acquisition is subconscious, focusing on meaning, while learning is conscious, focusing on form. It is argued that conscious knowledge of linguistic forms does not ensure acquisition of the rules, that is, does not ensure an immediate guidance for actual performance.

有些第二语言习得学者指出,第二语言学习者遇到的困难,对其大多数人而言,是由于第二语言是在正式场合而非在自然的环境中习得的。

语言习得与语言学习的明显不同在于,习得是无意识的,注重的是意义,而学习是有意识的,注重的是形式。一些学者争辩说,有意识地了解形式并不能保证习得有关规则,即不能保证立即指导实际的语言行为。

14. What is the discourse-based view of language teaching? 

基于语篇的语言教学观是什么?

 The essential point of the discourse-based view of language takes into account the fact that words , clauses and sentences which have been the traditional concern of much language teaching ( McCarthy and Carter , 1994 : 1 ). The discourse-based view of language focuses on complete spoken and written texts and on the social and cultural contexts in which such language operates. Accordingly, the discourse-based view of language teaching aims at developing discourse competence.

 

    以语篇为基础的语言观最重要的一点是把语言看作是存在于语境中的语段。词汇,从句和句子一向是传统语言学研究的关注对象,而语篇语言学认为语言超越了这些单位(McCathy and Carter,1994)。以语篇为基础的语言观研究的是口头和书面的完整语篇以及这些语篇存在的社会和文化语境。相应地,以语篇为基础的语言教学目的在于培养学习者的语篇能力。

15. Can you enumerate some causes that lead to the systematic occurrence of errors in second language acquisition?

能否列举一些有关第二语言习得中出现系统性错误的原因?

Some major causes that lead to the systematic occurrence of errors in second language acquisition include 1) interference from the mother tongue; 2) interlingual interference within the target language; 3) overgeneralization.

1) Mother tongue interference: Mother tongue interference is found at the level of pronunciation, morphology, syntax, vocabulary and meaning, and can be predicted by contrasting the grammatical or other systems of the native and target languages.

2) Interlingual interference: Interlingual interference, or cross – association, occurs when the learner mixes rules and patterns of the target language and produce hybrid structures.

3) Overgeneralization: The use of previously available strategies in new situations, i. e.  A particular pattern or rule of the target language is applied in many other linguistic situations.

导致第二语言习得出现系统性错误的一些主要原因包括:1、母语干扰;2、目标语的语际语干扰; 3、概括过度。

1)母语干扰:母语干扰体现在语音、形态、句法、词汇与意义方面,可以通过对经本族语与目标语的语法及其它体系加以预测。

2)语际语干扰:语际语干扰,或称语言交叉联系,即学习者将目标语的规则与模式混淆,从而造成混杂的结构。

3)概括过度:将先前的策略应于用新的环境,即,将目标语中一个特定的模式或规则应用于其它许多语言环境。

 

16. What are the effects of formal instruction on second language acquisition?

正规教学对第二语言习得有哪些影响?

Although formal instruction generally focuses on the explicit teaching of linguistic forms, it aids adult L2 learners, particularly adult beginners, by providing opportunities for learners to receive modified comprehensible input that are specially suited to their current stage of L2 development. Moreover, in the “intake – type” of classroom environment, teaching materials and methods are all finely tuned in order to meet the needs of the learner and provide them with ample opportunities to interact with the input.

尽管正规教学一般侧重于刻意地教授语言形式,但对学习第二语言的人,尤其是成人初学者有帮助,因为它为学习者提供机会,使他们获得尤其适应其第二语言发展阶段的、并经过调适的可理解语言输入。而且,在“纳入式”的课堂环境中,教学材料与教学方法都是经过精心设计以满足学习者的需求,为他们提供足够的机会与输入的内容相联系。

17. What are real-world tasks and pedagogical tasks? Can you give some examples?

真实任务和教学任务分别是什么?你能否举例?

A real-world task is very close to something we do in daily life or work. For example, students may be asked to work in groups, discuss how the sports facilities in their school can be improved (e.g. buy some new facilities) and make some suggestions to the headmaster. This is a real-world task because there are things like this in the real world. Pedagogical tasks are those activities that students do in the classroom but that may not take place in real life. For example, the students work in pairs. Each is given a picture. Most of the things in the pictures are the same, but there are some differences. The students are asked to describe their picture to each other and identify the differences. In this task, the students use language to do something, that is , to identify differences between two pictures in doing this task , they focus on meaning rather than form , because they are not asked to practice particular linguistic items . We say this is a pedagogical task rather than a real-world task because in daily 1ife we do not normally do things like this. It is pedagogical in the sense that it is designed to help the students to learn or review certain language knowledge or skills. This does not mean, however, that real-world tasks do not have any pedagogical purposes. 

       

真实任务与我们日常生活或工作中要展开的活动非常接近。例如,学生以小组的形式讨论他们学校的运动器材怎样得到改进(例如,买一些新的器材),并且他们要给校长提出一些建议。这类的活动属于真实世界的活动,因为在生活中我们会遇到这样的问题。教学任务是那些学生只是在教室中展开,在生活中不会发生的活动。例如,学生两人一组,各自拿到一张图片,图片上的大部分内容是相同的,但是还有一些不同之处。活动要求双方通过各自向对方描述自己的图片来找出这些不同。这个活动中,学习者运用语言来做具体的事情,也就是找出两幅图片的不同。在完成这个活动的过程中,学习者主要关注的是语言的意义而不是形式,因为活动并不是要求他们练习某些特定的语言片段。我们把这种活动定义为教学任务,因为在真实世界中我们不会遇到这种情况。这类活动是专门为教学所设计的,目的是来帮助学习者学习或者复习某些语言知识或者技能。但是这里并不是说真实情况的活动就没有任何教学上的用途。

18. What are the most important tasks for a syllabus designer?  

教学大纲的设计步骤是什么?

The process of syllabus design in foreign language teaching mainly includes selecting and grading what is to be taught. A process of selection must be undertaken since learning the whole system of a foreign language is neither possible nor necessary. Selection involves two subprocesses: First, the restriction of the language to a particular dialect and register; and second, the selection from within the register of the items that are to be taught according to criteria such as frequency of occurrence, learnability and classroom needs The whole process of selection must be applied at all levels of language, such as phonology, grammar, lexis, contexts (semantic and cultural). After a 1ist of language items have been selected, the next process is to put them into the most appropriate order for practical teaching purposes. This process is often referred to as grading or sequencing.

 

外语教学中大纲设计过程主要包括选择和排列教学内容。对所学的内容进行选择是不可避免的,因为学习语言的整个体系既不现实也没有必要。选择的过程包括两个步骤:首先,把语言限定在某个特定的方言和语域内。第二,根据一定的标准,例如出现的频率,难易度,或者课堂需求等从所选语域中进一步选择要学习的语言。这个过程应该在言语的所有层次上进行,例如语音,词汇,语境(语义的或者文化的)。在选择了一系列的语言点后,下一个步骤就是要按照实际的教学目的合理地安排教学的先后顺序。

19. What is a structural syllabus? 

什么是结构教学大纲?

Influenced by structuralist linguistics, the structural syllabus is a gramrnar oriented syllabus based on a selection of language items and structures. The vocabulary and grammatical rules included in the teaching materials are carefully ordered according to factors such as frequency, complexity and usefulness. The syllabus input is selected and graded according to grammatical notions of simplicity and complexly. These syllabuses introduce one item at a time and require mastery of that item before moving on to the next.

受到结构主义语言学的影响,结构主义大纲主要以语法教学为向导,以语言结构为基础。大纲编写者参考出现频率,复杂程度和有用程度和有用程度等因素精心安排大纲中出现的词汇和语法规则在教学中的先后顺序。大纲是根据语法规则的难易程度来建构的。这类大纲每一单位课时介绍一个语言点,并且要求学习下一个语言点之前要完全掌握前面的知识点。

 

20. What is Contrastive Analysis? 

什么是对比分析?
      Contrastive Analysis a way of comparing languages (e.g., L1 and L2) in order to determine    

potential errors for the ultimate purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in a second language learning situation. The goal of contrastive analysis is to predict what areas will be easy to learn and what areas will be difficult to learn. Contrastive Analysis was associated in its early days with behaviorism and structuralism.

 

对比分析是通过对比不同语言(如第一语言和第二语言)来确定潜在错误的方法,从而把第二语言学习环境下必须学习和不必学习的东西最终区分开来。对比分析的目的的为了预测哪些领域容易学得,哪些领域不易学得。对比分析早期与行为主义和结构主义相关。

 

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