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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第十一章 Theories and Schools of Modern linguistics 西方现代语言学理论与流派  

2011-08-02 00:31:43|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

       

一、核心提示

 

关于语言的讨论,跨越三个层面:处于底层是具体语言的事实,处于中层是语言学和应用语言学研究;处于顶层是语言学观点或思想认识的讨论。需要指出的是,本书只涉及西方,没有东方(包括中国),这颇值得我们思考。

    索绪尔集西方语言研究之大成,以符号为核心,创立了现代语言学。其后的语言学流派或理论研究,虽各有建树,但都以语言是一个结构系统为基点。最有影响的包括布拉格学派、伦敦学派、美国结构主义、转换生成语法、哥本哈根学派等。


第十一章  Theories and Schools of Modern linguistics 西方现代语言学理论与流派 - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

   

 布拉格学派是由马泰修斯创始。该派突显的一个贡献就是区分了语音学与音位学。语音学着眼于语音的物理性和生理性,而音位学关注的是语音的心理性、文化性和意义。音位学的具体研究包括经济性,和谐性,音位对立性以及音色特征等。句法学是布拉格流派的另一贡献。在分析语句时,他们没有沿袭传统的词类和句子成分等范畴概念,而是引入了信息论,以交际力大小分析判断各成分对全句子的贡献,重视句子的功能,而不是形式。功能决定形式。

伦敦学派两位最重要人物分别是马林诺夫斯基和弗斯。在语言观上,马林诺夫斯基特别重视语言的社会环境,认为它语言的本质,因为语境有下列功能:产生语言,帮助建立意义和理解意义,语言的存在与发展所在。弗斯继承发扬了他老师马林诺夫斯基的传统,认为语言远远不止符号和信号,而应该是人类生活的一种方式,所以“社会语境”是语言研究极为重要的课题。弗斯将结构(组合关系)和系统(聚合关系)的方法用到语音学和音位学上,提出韵律分析理论,即音位可以继续分解为准音位单位和韵律成分。

     美国结构主义语言学呈现两大特点,实用性与科学性,其创始人为博厄斯,重要代表者萨皮尔,集大成者布龙菲尔德。博厄斯摆脱了以前语言学只着眼于印欧语系的局限,得出语言只有结构上的区别,没有发达与原始之分。而且,形式总是为内容表达服务的,所有语言在功能上没有优劣之分。萨皮尔在接触研究了大量非印欧语系的语言之后,发现语言都带着个民族的思维特征,文化与语言有着密切关系,语言能够反映不同人群观察、描述和解释世界的方式有差别,这都表现在各自语言的形式和语法手段上。布龙菲尔德的学说至今存在,具体反映在行为主义(刺激-反应)理论下的外语教学和大量语言学术语。

      转换生成语法建立在于这样的假设前提:婴儿出生时就已有语言习得机制,该机制赋予孩子以人类语言所需要的最基本的东西(普遍语法)。随机出生于各种文化里的婴儿注定地接受个别语法(母语),然后接触大量该语言的材料,形成内化了的语言规则,也就是下意识的语言知识(不可分割的个人部分),乔姆斯基称其为语言能力(即在最理想的条件下说话人/听话人所掌握的语言知识),然后在具体适当场合下对这种能力(知识)进行具体的语言运用。乔姆斯基以英语为个别语法举例,对儿童语言习得过程进行研究,包括语音、句法及语义。其中最重要的概念有深层结构和表层结构。前者指句子的抽象句法表达,即结构组织的底层平面,它决定着如何解释该句子(歧义、寓意)。后者是句法表达的最后阶段,为音位规则提供输入,也最接近平常语言。深层结构决定意义,表层结构决定声音。

 

二、概念定义

 

Saussure:hailed as the father of modern linguistics, he was the first to notice the complexities of language. He believed that language is a system of signs. To communicate ideas, signs must be part of a system of signs called conventions. He held that the sign is the union of a form (signifier) and an idea (signified), and it is the central fact of language. By providing answers to questions concerning many aspects of language, he made clear the object of study for linguistics as a science. His ideas on the arbitrary nature of sign, on the relational nature of linguistic units, on the distinction of langue and parole and of synchronic and diachronic linguistics, etc. pushed linguistics into a brand new stage.

索绪尔: 现代语言学之父,第一个注意到语言的复杂性。他认为语言是一个符号系统。为了交流思想,符号必须是整个符号系统的一部分,即“惯例”。他指出符号是形式(能指)和意义(所指)的结合,是语言的核心事实。

通过回答与语言多方面相关的问题,索绪尔明确了语言作为一门科学所要研究的对象。他关于符号的任意性和语言单位的相关性的思想,以及对“语言”和“言语”、“历时”和“共时”的区分等等,把语言学推进到一个崭新的阶段。

 

  the Prague School: best known and remembered for its contribution to phonology and the distinction between phonetics and phonology. Following Sausssure’s distinction between langue and parole, Trubetzkoy argued that phonetics belonged to parole whereas phonology belonged to langue. On this basis he developed the notion of “phoneme” as an abstract unit of the sound system as distinct from the sounds actually produced.

     In classifying distinctive features, he proposed three criteria: (1) their relation to the whole contrastive system; (2) relations between the opposing elements; and (3) their power of discrimination. These oppositions can be summarized as a) bilateral opposition; b) multilateral opposition; c) proportional opposition; d) isolated opposition; e) privative opposition; f) gradual opposition; g) equipolent opposition; h) neutralisable opposition; and i) constant opposition.

布拉格学派: 最闻名的功绩在于它对音韵学的贡献,以及对语音学和音位学的区分。继索绪尔区分“语言”和“言语”之后,Trubetzkoy 依提出语音学属于“言语”,而音位学属于“语言”。在此基础上,他提出“音位”的概念,即语音系统的抽象单位,区别于实际发出的声音。

为了对音位的区别性特征进行分类,Trubetzkoy提出三条标准:(1)它们与整个对立系统的关系;(2)对立成分之间的关系;(3)区别力的大小。这些对立可归纳为:a)双边对立;b)多变对立;c)均衡对立;d)孤立对立;e)否定对立;f)分级对立;g)等价对立;h)中和对立;i)永恒对立。

 

   the London School: a tradition of laying stress on the functions of language and attaching great importance to contexts of situation and the system aspect of language. It is these features that have made this school of thought known as systemic linguistics and functional linguistics. It is an important and admirable part of the London School tradition to believe that different types of linguistics description may be appropriate for different purposes.

    伦敦学派: 具有强调语言功能的传统,并且重视语言环境和语言的系统性。正是因为这些特征,伦敦学派的思想被视作系统语言学和功能语言学。他们认为不同类型的语言学描写适合于不同的目的,这是伦敦学派传统中一个重要而且很宝贵的思想。

prosodic analysis: or prosodic phonology, is Firth’s second important contribution to linguistics. Since any human utterance is a continuous speech flow made up of at least one syllable, it cannot be cut into independent units. Phonological description only deals with paradigmatic relations, leaving syntagmatic relations out of consideration. Firth pointed out that in actual speech, it is not phonemes that make up the paradigmatic relations, but phonematic units. There are fewer features in phonematic units than in phonemes, because some features are common to phonemes of a syllable or a phrase(even a sentence).When these features are considered in syntagmatic relations, they are all called prosodic units, which include features such as stress, length, nasalisation, palatalisation and aspiration. In any case, these features cannot be found in one phonematic unit alone.

    韵律分析法: 或称韵律音位学,是弗斯对语言学的第二个重大贡献。人的话语是一个连续的语流,由至少一个音节组成,不能被切分为若干独立的单位。音位描写仅仅描写聚合关系,而没有考虑组合关系。弗斯指出,在实际言语中构成聚合关系的不是音位,而是准音位单位。准音位单位的特征比音位少,因为有些特征是一个音节或短语(甚至句子)的音位所共有的。这些共有的特征被纳入组合关系中,统称为韵律单位,包括重音、音长、鼻化、硬腭化和送气等特征。在任何情况下,这些特征不会单独存在于一个准韵律单位中。

 

case grammar: a type of generative approach that stresses the semantic relationship of elements in a sentence. This grammar takes the verb as the most important part of sentence, marking the relationships between the verb with various phrases as "cases".

    Fillmore's argument is based on the assumptions that syntax should be the central in the determination of case and that covert categories are important. The various ways in which occur in simple sentences define sentence types and verb types of a language.

 Case grammar shows clear semantic relevance of notions such as agency, causation, location, advantage to someone, etc. These are easily identifiable across languages, and are held by many psychologists to play an important part in child language acquisition.

格语法: 是生成语言学的一个方法,着重研究句子成分之间的关系。在这一语法体系中,动词被视为句子中最重要的部分,它与不同名词短语之间的关系被定义为“格”。

菲尔墨的论点之假设是,句法在确定格的时候起关键作用,而且隐性的范畴很重要。格在简单句子中出现的不同方式,决定了一种语言中的句子类型和动词类型。

格语法表明了一些概念之间语义关联,如施事、原因、地点、利益等等。这些概念在语言中极易辨认,而且许多心理学家认为它们在儿童语言习得中发挥着重要作用。

 

Generative Semantics: developed as a reaction to Chomsky's syntactic-based TG-Grammar. This theory considers that all sentences are generated from a semantic structure. Linguists working within this theory hold that there is no principled distinction between syntactic processes and semantic processes. This notion was accompanied by a number of subsidiary hypotheses. First, the purely syntactic level of deep structure posited by Chomsky (1965) cannot exist. Second, the initial representations of derivations are logical representations identical from language to language. Third, all aspects of meaning are representable in phrase--marker forms. In other words, the derivation of a sentence is a direct transformational mapping from semantics to surface structure.

生成语义学:它的形成是对乔姆斯基以句法为基础的转换生成语法的反叛。这一理论认为所有句子都由语义结构生成。持这一理论的语言学家认为在句法过程和语义过程之间没有原则性区别。这一观点还有一些辅助性的假说作为补充。第一,乔姆斯基于1965年提出的纯句法的深层结构这一层面并不存在;第二,在各种语言中,对派生的最初描述与逻辑描述是相同的;第三,意义的各个方面都可以用短语标记形式来描述。换言之,句子的派生是语义学到表层结构的直接转换映射。

 

三、理解简答  Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1.       What are the three important points of the Prague School?

   布拉格学派的三个重要观点是什么?

       The Prague School has three points of special importance. First, it stressed that the synchronic study of language is fully justified as it can draw on complete and controllable material for investigation. Second, it emphasized the systemic character of language, arguing that no element of any language can be satisfactorily analyzed or evaluated if viewed in isolation. In other words, elements are held to be in functional contrast or opposition. Third, it looked on language as a tool performing a number of essential functions or tasks for the community using it.

 

布拉格学派提出三个特别重要的观点。第一,它强调对语言的共时研究完全是正确的,因为共时研究可以利用全面的、可控制的语言材料;第二,布拉格学派强调语言的系统性,指出任何语言的任何成分之间有功能性的对照或对立;第三,布拉格学派把语言视为语言社团用来完成一系列基本功能或任务的工具。

 

2. What is the essence of Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP)? .

功能句子观的本质是什么?

 

      FSP is a theory that refers to a linguistic analysis of utterances (or texts) in terms of the information they contain. Principle is that the role of each utterance part is evaluated for its semantic contribution to the whole. From a functional point of view, some Czechoslovak linguists believed that a sentence contains a point of departure and a goal of discourse. The point of departure is equally present to the speaker and to the hearer which it is their rallying point, the ground on which they meet. This is called the Theme. The goal of discourse presents the very information that is to be imparted to the hearer. This is called the Rheme. It is believed that the movement from the Theme to the Rheme reveals the movement of the mind itself. Language may use different syntactic these observations, they created the notion of Functional Sentences. FSP deals particularly with the effect of the distribution of known (or given) information and new information in discourse. The known information refers to information that is not new to the reader or hearer, and the new information is what is to be transmitted to the reader or hearer.

    句子功能观是指对话语或文本所包含的信息进行语言学分析的理论。其原则是,话语中各部分的作用取决于该部分对全句意义的贡献。一些捷克斯洛伐克语言学家从功能的角度出发,认为一个句子总是包含一个“出发点”和一个“语篇目标”。出发点对说话人和听话人来说都是存在的——这是把他们的结合点——交会的地方——叫做“主位”。语篇目标是要传送给听话人的信息,叫做“述位”。从主位到述位运动,揭示了大脑自身的运动。不同的语言可能采用不同的句子结构,但是表达思想的次序基本相同。基于这些观察,布拉格语言学家提出了“功能句子观”(FSP)这个概念,用以描述信息是如何在句子里分布的。功能句子观特别阐释了语篇中已知信息和新信息分布的效果。已知信息是指那些对于读者或听话者来说并非新的信息,而新信息是指那些将要传送给读者或听话者的信息。

2.      What is the difference between Malinowski and Firth on context of situation?

马林诺维斯基与弗斯对情景语境的看法有何不同?

Malinowski distinguished three types of context of situation: situations in which speech interrelates with bodily activity, narrative situations, and phatic situations. Firth defined the context of situation as including the entire cultural setting of speech and the personal history of the participants rather than a simply the context of human activity going on at the moment. Recognizing that sentences can vary infinitely, Firth used the notion of “typical context of situation”, meaning that social situations determine the social roles participants are obliged to play; since the total number of typical contexts of situation they will encounter is finite, the total number of social roles is also finite. He put forward the idea that in analyzing a typical context of situation, one has to take into consideration both the situational context and the linguistic context of a text.

     马林诺维斯基区分了三种情景语境:言语与当时身体活动相关的情景,叙述情景和寒暄情景。而弗斯对情景语境的定义包括言语的整个文化背景和参与者的个人历史,而不仅仅是人类活动进行之时的情景。弗斯发现句子的变化是无穷的,于是他提出了“典型情景语境”的概念,即社会环境决定了人们必须扮演的社会角色。因为典型情景语境的数量总数是有限的,所以社会角色也是有限的。他还提出,在分析典型情景语境时,应该同时考虑话语的情景环境和语言环境。

4. What is the relation between Systemic Grammar and Functional Grammar?

系统语法与功能语法是什么关系?

 

Systemic Grammar and Functional Grammar are two inseparable components for an integral framework of Systemic-Functional linguistic theory. Systemic Grammar aims to explain the internal relations in language as a system network, or meaning potential. This network consists of subsystem from which language is a means of social interaction, based on the position that language system and the forms that make it up are inescapably determined by the uses or functions which they serve. Systemic Grammar contains a functional component, and the theory behind Functional Grammar is sytemic.

系统语法和功能语法是系统功能语法理论这一完整框架中不可分离的两个部分。系统语法的目标是把语言当作一个系统网络或是“意义潜势”来解释其内部关系。这个网络包括语言使用者做出选择的各种子系统。功能语法的目标是要揭示语言是社会交流的手段,其思想基础是,语言的系统和形式是不可避免地被它们的使用者或语言所发挥的功能所决定。系统语法中有一个功能性的成分,功能语法后面的理论是系统性的。

5. Analyze the following Relational-process sentences according to their mode and type.

根据形式和类型,分析下列关系过程句子。


( 1 ) Linguistics is a difficult course
( 2 ) This laptop is Professor Huang ' s

( 1 ) Type : intensive ; Mode : attributive

( 2 ) Type :possessive;  Mode: identifying

根据形式和类型,分析下列关系过程句子。

   (1)Linguistics is a difficult course.

(2)This laptop is Professor Huang’s.

(1)类型:内包式;形式:归属

(2)类型:所有式;形式:识别

6. What are the special features of American structuralism?

美国结构主义的特征是什么?

American Structuralism is a branch of synchronic linguistics that developed in a very different style from that of Europe. While linguistics in Europe started more than two thousand years ago, linguistics in America started at the end of the nineteenth century. While traditional grammar plays a dominating role in Europe, it has little influence in America. While many European languages have their own historical traditions and cultures, English is the dominating language in America, where there is no such a tradition as in Europe. In addition, the pioneer scholars in America were faced with the urgent task of recording the rapidly perishing Native American Indian languages because there was no written record of them. However, these languages were characterized by features of vast diversity and differences which are rarely found in other parts of the world. To record and describe these exotic languages, it is probably better not to have any presuppositions about the nature of language in general. This explains why there was not much development in linguistic theory during this period but a lot of discussion on descriptive procedures.
    Structuralism is based on the assumption that grammatical categories should be defined not in terms of meaning but in terms of distribution, and that the structure of each language should be described without reference to the alleged universality of such categories as tense, mood and parts of speech. Firstly, structural grammar describes everything that is found in a language instead of laying down rules. However, its aim is confined to the description of languages, without explaining why language operates the way it does. Secondly, structural grammar is empirical, aiming at objectivity in the sense that all definitions and statements should be verifiable or refutable. However, it has produced almost no complete grammars comparable to any comprehensive traditional grammars. Thirdly, structural grammar examines all languages, recognizing and doing justice to the uniqueness of each language. But it does not give an adequate treatment of meaning. Lastly, structural grammar describes even the smallest contrasts that underlie any construction or use of a language, not only those discoverable in some particular use.

美国结构主义是共时语言学的一支,但其发展风格与欧洲完全不同。欧洲的语言学始于两千多年前,而美国的语言学却始于19世纪末。传统语法在欧洲大陆占据统治地位,而在美国的影响却微乎其微。欧洲许多语言都有自己的历史传统和文化。此外,美国的先驱学者面临着一个极为紧迫的任务——记录那些正在迅速消亡的土著美国印第安人的语言,因为这些语言没有书面记录。然而,这些语言之奇特多样性,差异明显是世界上其他地方不多见的。为了记录和描写这些奇异的语言,也许最好对语言的普遍特征不要有先入为主的假设。这就可以解释为什么这一时期的语言学在理论上没有大的发展,而关于语言描写程序的讨论却又如此之多。

结构主义基于以下假设:语法范畴应该通过分布而非意义来定义,并且描写任何一种语言的结构都不应该涉及诸如时态、语气和词性等所谓的普遍性。第一,结构主义语法只描写语言中所发现的一切,而不是特定的规则。然而,它的目标被局限于对语言进行描写,而没有解释为什么语言按照自己的方式运作。第二,结构主义语法是经验主义的,非常注重客观性,认为所有的定义和表述要么是可证实的,要么是可证伪的。然后,结构主义语法几乎没有产生一部完整的、能与传统语法书比美的语法书。第三,结构主义语法考察所有的语言,认可并且公正对待每种语言的独特性,但却没有充分对待意义。第四,结构主义语法不仅描写了语言的特殊用法,甚至还阐述了语言结构或语言现象后面存在的最小差别。

7. How is behaviorist psychology related to Linguistics?

行为主义心理学与语言学有何关系?

 

For Bloomfield, linguistics is a branch of psychology , and specifically of the positivistic brand of psychology known as " behaviourism " Behaviourism is a principle of scientific method , based on the belief that human beings cannot know anything they have not experienced. Behaviorism in linguistics holds that children learn language through a chain of “stimulus-response reinforcement”, and the adult’s use of language is also a process of “stimulus-response”.  When the behaviorist methodology entered linguistics via Bloomfield ' s writings , the popular practice in linguistic studies was to accept what a native speaker says in his language and to discard what he says about it . This is because of the belief that a linguistic description was reliable when based on observation of unstudied utterances by speakers; it was unreliable if the analyst had resorted to asking speakers questions such as “Can you say in your language?”

在布龙菲尔德看来,语言学是心理学的一个分支,特别是实证主义心理学即“行为主义”的一个分支。行为主义是一种科学研究方法,建立在如下认识之上:人类无法知道他们所未经历之事。语言学的行为主义认为儿童通过一连串的“刺激—反应—强化”来学习语言,而成年人对语言的使用也是一个“刺激—反应”的过程。当行为主义的方法论经由布龙菲尔德德著作进入语言学研究之后,语言学研究的普遍做法就是接受一个本组语者的话语本身,而舍弃他对自己语言的评论。这是由于当时认为,只有基于说话人自然话语的语言描述才是卡可靠的;反之,如果分析者通过询问说话人诸如“你的语言能否说……?”之类的问题,他做出的语言描述是不可靠的。

8. What is Harris’ s most important contribution to linguistics?

哈里斯对语言学最重要的贡献是什么?

 

Harris 's Methods in Structural linguistics(1951 ) makes the maturity of American descriptive linguistics , for he gave the fullest and most interesting expression of the “discovery procedure " approach characterized by accurate analytical procedures and high degree of formalization . He formulated a set of strict descriptive procedures which took the logic of distributional relations as the basis of structural analysis.This method has greatly influenced American descriptive linguistics and Harris is therefore regarded as one of the most distinguished linguists in the post-Bloomfieldian era.

Harris的《结构语言学的方法》(1951)标志着美国描写语言学的成熟,因为他以最完整而有趣的笔触描述了以精确分析程序和高度形式化为特征的“发现程序”。他以分布关系的逻辑作为结构分析的基础,构建了一套严格的描写程序。这种方法极大地影响了美国描写语言学,Harris因此被誉为后布龙菲尔德时期最杰出的语言学家之一。

 

9. What is the theoretical importance of Tagmemics?

法位学的理论重要性是什么?

Tagmemics is a special name for the technique of linguistic analysis developed by Pike, the most significant figure in continuing the structuralist tradition. For Pike, a language has its own hierarchical systems independent of meaning. Not only are there hierarchies in language , but that everything in the world is hierarchical , consisting of different layers in the system from small to big , from bottom to top , from simple to complex , from part to whole . The ultimate aim of tagmemics is to provide a theory which integrates lexical, grammatical, and phonological information. This theory is based on the assumption that there are various relations in language, and these relations can be analyzed into different units. However, to believe that language is part of human behavior, one needs to recognize that language cannot be strictly formalized. Since no representational system can account for all the relevant facts of language, tagmemics accepts various different modes of representation for different purposes, and does not insist that there is only one correct grammar or linguistic theory.

法位学是由继承结构主义传统最为重要的学者Pike提出的语言分析技术的一个专有名称。Pike认为,语言独立于意义之外的等级系统。不仅语言存在等级,世间万物都是有等级的,其系统由大到小、从底层到顶层、从简单到复杂、从部分到整体的各种层级结构。法位学的最终目的在于提供一套整合词汇,语法和语音信息的理论。这个理论基于以下假设,即在语言中存在各种关系,而且这些关系能被分解为不同的单位。然而,为了相信语言是人类行为的一部分,人们必须认识到语言是不能被严格地形式化的。既然没有表达系统能够解释所有与语言相关的事实,那么法位学便采用不同的表达模式为不同的目的服务,并且不再坚持世上只有唯一正确的语法或者语言理论。

 

10. How many stages of development has Chomsky ' s TG Grammar undergone ?

乔姆斯基的转换生成语法经历了几个发展阶段?

Chomsky ‘s TG Grammar has seen five stages of development. The Classical Theory aims to make linguistics a science. The Standard Theory deals with how semantics should be studied in a linguistics theory. The Extended Standard Theory focuses discussion on language universals and universal grammar. The Revised Extended Standard Theory (or GB) focuses discussion on government and binding. The latest is the Minimalist Program, a further revision of the previous theory.
    The development of TG Grammar can be regarded as a process of Constantly minimalising theories and controlling the generative powers. Although TG Grammar has involved putting forward, revising, and canceling of many specific rules, hypotheses, mechanisms, and theoretical models, its aims and purposes have been consistent, i.e. to explore the nature, origin and the uses of human knowledge on language.

乔姆斯基的转换生成语法经历了五个发展阶段:古典理论旨在使语言学成为一门科学。标准理论论述如何在语言学理论中研究语义学。扩展的标准理论集中讨论语言的普遍性和普遍语法。修正的扩展标准理论(或称管约理论)主要讨论管辖和约束。最近一个阶段即最简方案,是以前理论的进一步修正。

转换生成语法的发展可被视为不断简化理论和控制生成能力的过程。尽管转化生成语法经历了提出、修改和抛弃很多具体规则、假说、机制和理论模型的过程,它的目的和意图却始终如一,即探索人类语言的本质、起源和有关语言知识的运用。

11. What does Chomsky mean by Language Acquisition Device?

乔姆斯基所说的语言习得机制是什么?

Chomsky believes that language is somewhat innate, and that children are born with what he calls a Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which is a unique kind of knowledge that fits them for language learning. He argues the child comes into the world with specific innate endowment, not only with general tendencies or potentialities, but also with knowledge of the nature of the world, and specifically with knowledge of the nature of language. According to this view, children are born with knowledge of the basic grammatical relations and categories, and this knowledge is universal. The categories and relations exist in all human languages and all human infants are born with knowledge of them. According to him, the study of language, or the structure of language, can throw some light on the nature of the human mind.

According to Chomsky, there are aspects of linguistic organization that are basic to the human brain and that make it possible for children to acquire linguistic competence in all its complexity with little instruction from family or friends. He argues that LAD probably consists of three elements: a hypothesis-maker, linguistic universal, and an evaluation procedure.

 乔姆斯基认为语言是某种天赋,儿童天生就具有独一无二的、适合语言学习的知识,即“语言习得机制”(LAD)。他指出,儿童天生就拥有独特的天赋才能——不仅是普遍的潜力,而且还有关于世界本质的知识,尤其是关于语言本质的知识。根据这种观点,儿童生来就具备基本语法关系和范畴知识,而且这种知识是人类共有的。这种语法范畴和关系在于一切人类语言,有助于揭示人脑的本质。

    乔姆斯基认为,人类大脑中基本的语言组织使得儿童可以不用家人或朋友的指导而获得极为复杂的语言能力。乔姆斯基还指出语言习得机制可能包含三个要素:假设机制、语言普遍性和评价程序。

12.  Why do you think Generative Grammar can produce well-formed sentences? (e.g. Mary reads a book ) but no ill-formed ones ( e.g.*A book reads Mary.

The Standard Theory has a selectional restriction to rule out ill-formed sentences of this klnd. It ensures that is an active voice the animate noun appears before the verb and the inanimate noun appears after the verb.
   为什么生成语法能够生成正确的句子?(如“玛丽读书”)而不能生成不合格的句子(如*“书读玛丽”)。

标准理论有选择性的限制来排除这种不合格的句子。它能确保有生命的名词出现在动词之前,而无生命的名词出现在动词之后。

 

13. Why can a sentence like John kills John be transformed into John kills himself?

为什么“约翰杀死约翰”这样的句子能够被转换成“约翰杀死自己”?
    The Reflexive Rule says that in simple sentences, if a noun appears twice, the second noun should     

be in the reflexive form. Thus, the second John becomes himself.
   

反身规则(Reflexive Rule)规定:在简单句中一个名词出现两次,那么第二次必须使用反身形式。所以在“约翰杀死约翰”中,第二个“约翰”变成了“(他)自己”。

 

14. What is special about TG Grammar?

转换生成语法的特殊之处是什么?
    The starting point of Chomsky's TG Grammar is his innateness hypothesis, based on his observations that some important facts can never be otherwise explained adequately
    Chomsky ' s TG Grammar has the following features .First , Chomsky defines language as a set of rules or principles. Second, Chomsky believes that the aim of linguistics is to produce a generative grammar which captures the tacit knowledge of the native speaker of his language.

乔姆斯基转换生成语法的出发点在于天赋假设。这一假设建立在他对一些其他方式无法充分解释的重要现象的观察之上。

乔姆斯基的转换生成语法具备如下特征:第一,乔姆斯基将语言定义为一套规则或规律。第二,乔姆斯基认为语言学的目的在于建立一套能够捕获本族语人默认知识的生成语法。这就涉及到学习理论和语言普遍性的问题。第三,乔姆斯基和他的追随者对任何能够揭示本族语人默认知识的资料都极感兴趣。他们很少使用本族语人实际的话语,而是依赖自己的直觉。第四,乔姆斯基的研究方法是假说—演绎,他将这种方法运用在两个层面上:(a)语言学家提出关于语言结构的假设——语言的普遍理论,由个别语言的语法加以验证;(b)每一个个别语法又是关于语言普遍理论的假设。第四,乔姆斯基继承了哲学上的理性主义和心理学上的心灵主义。


  

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