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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

第九章 Language and ethnology 语言与民族  

2011-08-02 00:06:34|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

一、核心提示

语言发展于人文需求,又始终孕育着人文。所以,具体语言反映着具体文化与社会,

同时还影响社会文化以及被社会文化影响。

洪堡特说过:一个民族的语言就是他们的精神,一个民族的精神就是他们的语言。的确,知道了不列颠海岛上没有老虎,就很容易解释英语中为何没有含老虎的谚语或成语;山区的语音为何比平原的语音浓重;日语听起来就是日语,日语那种结构与语音语调,无疑对其民族心理和社会产生影响;英语的信息的中心在语首,而汉语的信息重心在语尾,这种差异的结果不仅反映了国人与西人的思维,而且因为这种句式差异,一定世世代代影响着各自民族的处世方式或精神。

    汉语是图像式语言,所以产生了以下历史结果:形与音相距甚远;虽然字形有助于想象,望字生义,但有时会因此而阻碍思维;重形轻音,造成同音字很多,依靠声调进一步区别;由于同音字多,歇后语极其丰富(韵尾)                                                                                        

英语是拼音文字这一事实, 英语是拼音文字,所以决定了它几种潜势:字母/子母串基本上没有联想功能,因为字母不是图形符号,所以必然依赖语义逻辑,形式语法很重要;以音表意,同音字很少,双关语很少。由于字母的线性排列,容易创造新词,所以它的词汇量极大;在字母串或字母组合体内,音与形关系甚为密切,很利于记忆,如此导致的便利由于寡义的词汇很多,所以描写准确而细腻,表达速度更快,这样,浩大词汇也不至于让使用者恐惧或为难;由于字母/子母串的本身没有联想功能,没有丰富的信息,所以使用起来不易干扰思维,不是发散式的,而是呈线性的。

 综上所述,语言的具体特征与使用的民族之间有着紧密联系,语言总是朝着一定的民族方向发展,语言与文化社会结合的产物。

 

二、 概念定义

 

Sociolinguistics:It is the linguistic study of society or the social study of language, or both. Language and society are closely connected. For one thing, the language a person uses often reveals his social, educational and religious background.  People from different social classes often speak in different ways. For another, there seem to be certain social norms as to which variety is used on formal occasions. A more informal or colloquial variety is suitable to informal settings. These issues and more are investigated by sociolinguistics.

社会语言学:研究的对象是语言的社会本质和差异,即各种语言差异和造成差异的各种社会因素。一方面,人通过他使用的语言,能显露他的社会、教育和宗教的背景。不同阶层的人使用的语言有差异。另一方面,似乎有某些特定的社会准则,要求人们在正式场合下使用一定语言形式。在非正式场合里,则较适合用随便的口语体或自由选择性大些。这都是社会语言学感兴趣的内容。

 

Register: It is also called “situational dialects” or “diatypic variety”. Register refers to a functional speech or language variety that involves degrees of formality depending on the speech situation concerned. It is concerned with the addresser and the addressee’s relationship to experience, to each other and to the medium of transmission, reflects the part or role played by language and also selects the part which can be played by other forms of intentionally communicative behavior. Thus the selection of one register rather than another in different situations is closely related with the question of use.

语域:也称作“语域方言”或“场合方言”,指的是一种功能性言语或语言变体,它体现由有关的语言情景而决定的正式性程度。它涉及交流双方之间、与处境之间、与交流载体之间的关系。它反映了语言在交际中的角色和作用。语域可以划分成等级。母亲跟她的两岁的女儿谈话是一种方式;如果她是一位律师,跟委托人谈话肯定是另一种方式;如果她代委托人写诉状,用的词汇和结构又不一样。这种语域的选择取决于交流场所、对象及载体。

Context of Situation: a framework put forward by Firth. This theory has the following elements:

A. The relevant features of the participants: persons, personalities:

(i) The verbal action of the participants.

(ii) The non-verbal action of the participants.

B. The relevant objects.

C. The effects of the verbal action.

       语境理论:为英国伦敦学派创始人弗斯提出,首次以比较完善的方式,阐述了说话人、语言形式、语言环境等因素相互之间的关系,开创了语言学研究中的“语境学说”。语境之说包括下列具体内容:

A.       参与者的相关特性:个人与个性: 

(i)                    参与者的言语行为;

(ii)                  参与者的非言语行为;                                                                                                                                                  

B.       相关的话题内容;

C.      言语行为所产生的效果。

 

  lingua franca vs. pidgin: It is a variety of language that serves as a common speech for social contact among groups of people who speak different native languages or dialiects.

 

通用语:指的是在讲不同本族语或方言的人群之间,为了接触目的而用作共同语的一种语言变体。洋泾浜语语是一种边缘性接触语言,具有有限的词汇和缩减的语法结构,由操其他语言的本族语者作为一种商务交际工具而使用。

 

standard language vs. diglossia: Standard language is superposed prestigious variety of language of a community or nation, usually based on the speech and writing of educated native speakers of the language. Diglossia is a sociolinguistic situation in which two very different varieties of language co – exist in a speech community, each serving a particular social function and used for a particular situation.

     标准语是指一个社区或国家中极具声望的一种语言变体,通常以讲该种语言的受过教育的本族人的口语和书面语为基础。

     双言现象是指一种社会语言学现象,即在一个言语社区中共存着两种截然不同的两种语言变体,每一种变体都具有一种特定的社会功能,用于一种特定的情景。

FLB/ FLN: both are important concept recently put forward by theoretic linguistics. FLB stands for the faculty of language in the broad sense. It forms a contrast with FLN—the faculty of language in the narrow sense.

广义/侠义语言能力:两者是理论语言学的新观点。乔姆斯基认为,在语言学研究中,有必要区分“广义语言能力”和“狭义语言能力”之间的异同。“广义语言能力”包括感觉运动系统、概念意念系统、以及递归运算机制三个方面的研究内容,为我们提供了从有限元素组群生成无限表达方式的可能。侠义与广义语言能力形成互补对立,其主要内容是递归特征,构成了人类语言独特的语言能力。

  Gender difference & linguistic sexism: is a term used to refer to the variety of differences observed between men and women’s linguistic behavior. This study coves almost all the levels of linguistic studies, ranging from pronunciation variants to communicative patterns.

Linguistic Sexism: is a term used to refer to sex-biased phenomena in language use. More specifically, it aims to reveal and deal with linguistic issues related to male chauvinism.

    语言性别差异与歧视: 前者指的是在具体的语言使用过程中,由于说话人性别的差异而引发的各种语言差异现象。后者指语言使用的过程中,一旦性别形成了对于另一种性别的歧视现象。一般而言,这种歧视现象反映出一种“大男子沙文主义”倾向。

  Linguistic Determinism: is a theory which believes that our language will influence or decide our way of looking at the world. In a loose sense, linguistic determinism, linguistic relativity, and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis can be regarded as synonyms.

 语言决定论(Linguistic Determinism):是美国语言学家Sapir提出的一种观点,是“萨丕尔—沃尔夫假设”的主要内容。这种观点认为,语言影响着我们的思维,不同的语言有可能导致不同的思维模式。

 

Linguistic Relativity: Sapir also called it linguistic relativity principle. Just as time, space and mass can be defined only in terms of a system of relationships; human knowledge similarly arises only in relation to the semantic and structural possibilities of natural languages. People using different languages whose grammars and vocabularies and other structures are definitely affected by their languages iand therefore look at their world differently. 

萨丕尔称其为语言关联原则。如同时间、空间、质量等概念只能在一定的系统关系内去理解,人类知识的建构与积累只能基于自然语言的语义及结构等。使用不同语言的人,其语法、词汇、结构等均不一样,而且始终受着该语言的影响,包括观察世界的方式到关注点的选取到获取的结论,直至影响其对待和改造世界的方式。

  Speech Community: refers to a group of people who share not only the same rules of speaking, but at least one linguistic variety as well.

     话语群体(Speech Community):正如Dell Hymnes指出的那样,指的是一个群体,躯体成员不但共享一套话语规则,而且至少共享一种语言变体形式。

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: a theoretic assumption which suggests that our language helps mould our way of thinking and, consequently, different languages may probably express speakers’ unique ways of understanding the world. In a loose sense, this term can be interchangeably used with linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism.

      萨丕尔-沃尔夫假说: 不同的语言,有助于形成人们对于世界的不同看法。不过,现在很少有人全盘接受这一理论的初始观点。事实上,随着时间的流变,这一假说从原来的初始形式中逐渐衍生出了“强式”和“弱势”两种理论模式。强式之说,指的是这一理论的初始假说,即强调语言在塑造人类思维方式过程中所起的决定性作用;弱势之说,则是对于初始假说的修正,认为语言、文化和思维之间有相关性,但是思维方式的跨文化差异是相当的,不是绝对的。

Ethnography of Communication: is an authoritative research framework of our time in a linguistic study of social and cultural factors . The essential elements Suggested by this framework include 1) speech community, 2) situation, event and act, and 3) mnemonic SPEAKING components.

交际民族学: 包括三个方面的核心内容:1)言语社团;2)场景、事件和行为,以及3)交际民族学模式。判定说话人是否属于同一个言语社团,不但要看成员之间是否共享一套话语规则,还要看他们是否至少共享一种语言变体形式。

 

三、理解简答   Brief answers based on correct understanding

 

1. What are some important contributions that sociolinguistics has made to linguistic studies?

社会语言学对语言研究有何重要贡献?

A couple of contrastive points can be given to show important contributions of sociolinguistics to linguistics. First, we observe that traditional linguistics emphasizes a formal analysis of language, whereas sociolinguistics calls for a multi-faceted study of language as well so that a more balanced research framework can be achieved. Second, we notice that traditional linguistics issues will be possible. Third, traditional linguistics attempts to look at internal elements of language, whereas sociolinguistics pays attention to externalized factors in language use as well so that a better understanding of the relationships between language, whereas sociolinguistics pays attention to externalized factors in language use as well so that a better understanding of the relationships between language, society, and the speaker can be achieved.

社会语言学对语言研究的贡献至少有三个方面:1)传统语言学强调对语言的形式分析,社会语言学着重多侧面分析,因此使得研究框架更为平衡;2)传统语言学更多侧重研究语言结构,而社会语言学则强调功能的研究,因而使得对语言问题的全方位研究成为可能;3)传统语言学尝试解释语言内部因素,而社会语言学则是关注语言外部因素,进而使得人们对语言和社会以及说话者之间的关系得到一个更好了解。

 

2. What is the field of discourse?

什么是话语场

The “field of discourse” is the linguistic reflection of the purposive role of the language user in the situation in which a text occurs. The language people use always conveys their desire to make sense. Purposive roles may be professional or non-professional. The professional roles touch upon special fields such as information technology, “modem”, “server” for one example, or bodybuilding, “triceps” for another. The non-professional will relate to common topic or field such as child rearing, promotion sales etc. 

“话语场”指的是人们说话的目的和场合等因素。人们说话当然是要表达一定的内容和意图,必然涉及到某些方面。它们或者属专业领域,如信息技术,“解调器”、“服务器”,健身法,“三角肌”。非专业领域就可能谈及养孩子,减价处理等。

 

3. What are some aspects of sociolinguistic research in social dialects?

社会语言学研究社会方言的那些方面?

Social dialects, or sociolects, are varieties of language used by people belonging to particular social classes. The study of social dialects concern a variety of social parameters such  as education, age and gender. It also examines register or style variety, forms of address, choice of slang, taboo and euphemism.

slang: a casual use of language that consists of expressive but nonstandard vocabulary, typically of arbitrary, flashy and often ephemeral coinages and figures of speech characterized by spontaneity and sometimes by raciness.

linguistic taboo: an obscene, profane, or swear word or expression that is prohibited from general use by the educated and “polite” society

euphemism: a word or expression that is thought to be mild, indirect, or less offensive and used as a polite substitute for the supposedly harsh and unpleasant word or expression

 社会方言是属于特定的社会阶层的人所使用的语言变体。社会方言研究涉及各种群体的人使用语言中的参数,如教育程度,年龄,性别。它还研究语域变体(风格变体),称谓形式以及对俚语、忌语、委婉语的选择。

俚语:一种随意使用的语言,它包含有表现力强但却不标准的词汇,尤其是包含任意的,花哨的、而且往往没有生命力的创新词和比喻,它们具有自发性特性,有时还带着亵渎。

忌语:一种淫秽、猥亵或骂人的词语,在受过教育的和“

雅的”社会圈被禁止使用。

委婉语:一种被认为温和的、婉转迂回的、或不太无礼的词语,作为文雅的词语以代替被视为粗俗和令人不愉快的词语。

 

4. What should be noticed by sociolinguists about a speech community?

社会语言学家注意言语社团的哪些现象?

Speech community refers to a group of people who form a community and share at least one speech variety as well as similar linguistic norms. The goal of sociolinguists is to explore the nature of language variation and language use among a variety of speech communities and in different social situations. Specifically, sociolinguists are particularly interested in three types of speech variety: regional dialects, social dialects and register.

 

      言语社区指构成一个社区的一个人类群体,他们不仅有相似的语言规范,而且共同使用至少一种言语变体。社会语言学家的目的就是探索在种种言语社区中和不同社会情景中的语言变异以及语言使用的本质。具体而言,社会语言学家尤其是感兴趣于三种言语变体:地域变体,社会方言和语域。

5. What is Anthropological Study of Linguistics? 

什么是人类语言学:

It aims to look at the relationships between language and culture in a speech community. For this reason, it can alternatively be called anthropological linguistics. More specially, practitioners of the field want to know more about a given community by examining the correlation between the tradition of the community, beliefs, and social behavior of community members and their language use in different contexts of communication.

是关于某一群体中,语言与文化关系的研究。具体来说,人类语言学家试图通过特定群体成员的语言使用、文化传统、信念体系、社会行为的研究,达到进一步了解这个话语群体的目的。

 

6. Why do we need to teach culture in our language classroom? 

语言教学为何需要文化学习?

A consensus has been reached that language not only reflects between language and culture but also is part of culture. The close relationships between language and culture have widely been acknowledged. When it comes to language teaching and learning, the influence of cultural knowledge on the linguistic performance of language learners who lack sufficient knowledge about the target culture can hardly become active and appropriate language users in their target language. For these reasons, the information concerning cultural differences has rightly been introduced in language classrooms of different kinds for enhancing learners’ cultural consciousness and improving their performance in cross-cultural contexts of communication.

       总体而言,就外语学习而言,文化知识的学习,至少有三个方面的作用:

1)  有助于学生了解文化差异;

2)  有助于语言学习者跳出自身文化的圈子,从目标文化的角度考虑问题;

3) 有助于通过各种课堂练习,强调语言与文化不可分离性的理解,促进外语学习。

 

7. What are the three features of Black English?Try to include at least one phonological and one syntactic characteristic?

黑人英语的三种特征是什么?至少要包括一种音系特点和一种句法特征。

1) One of the phonological features of Black English is the simplification of a consonant cluster at the end of a word by dropping the word – final phoneme. As a result, for example, “pass”, “past” and “passed”, are all pronounced the way as “pass” is.

2) One of the syntactic features of Black English is the constant absence of the copula, such as in “That mine” and “The coffee cold.”

3) Another syntactic feature that characterizes Black English is the double negation construction with sentences like “I don’t know nobody” and “He don’t go nowhere.”

1). 黑人英语的一个音系特征是,通过去掉位于词尾的音素简化位于词尾辅音连缀。所以,就有这样的例子:pass, past和passed的发音一样,即都pass一词的音。

2). 黑人英语的一个句法特征是经常缺失系词,比如That mine 和The coffee cold中is的缺失。

3). 黑人英语的另一个句法特征是用双重否定结构,例如这样的句子:I don’t know nobody.  He don’t go nowhere.

 

8. What distinction, if any, can you draw between bilingualism and diglossia?

双言现象和双语现象有何区别?

Bilingualism refers to a linguistic situation in which two standard languages are used in a speech community; whereas in a diglossic community, two varieties of language are used for different situations, one being more standard and higher, and used for more formal matters, and the other less prestigious, and used for colloquial situations.

双言现象指在一个言语社区中使用两种标准语的语言现象;而在一个双言社区中,两种语言变化本被用作不同的情景,一种变体较为标准且处于较高层次,用于较为正式的情景,而另一种的声望却没那么高,用于口语化的情景。

 

9. How do the speech of women and the speech of men differ from each other?

女性言语与男性言语相异在哪些方面?

Women tend to use more prestigious forms, more polite and indirect language, and more specific color terms than their male counterparts.

比起处于同一社会背景的男性,女性倾向于使用享有较高声望的语言形式,较文雅而婉转的语言,较精确的色彩词语。

 

10. Can you point out some words considered as instances of sexist language?

能否举例说明英语中存在性别歧视的例子?

1) businessman   2) cleaning woman    3) forefather 

  4) housewife     5) kinsman   6) layman  7) spokesman

8) statesman     9) stewardess   10) workmanship

 

以上单词被视为性别歧视语的例证。分别将各自改为:

1)business executive  2) housekeeper  3) ancestor

     4) homemaker    5) relative   6) nonspecific

7) speaker/ representative   8) leader

9) flight attendant   10) skilled work, quality job

 

11. As a student of linguistics, how should we understand the relationships between functionalism and formalism?

作为语言学专业的学生,如何理解功能与形式之间的关系?

A healthier understanding of the relationships between functionalism and formalism is to regard them as two sides of a coin rather than two contrasting theories or concepts. Meanwhile, we must also admit that each of them has something rather unique in terms of the selection of theoretical frameworks, perspectives, research concerns, and methods. For instance, when we want to study grammar issues from a typological perspective, a formal description of the differences in language structure proves to be a more economic and feasible approach. On the other hand, if we attempt to examine issues related to language use, a functional perspective will be a better choice. In either case, there is no absolute contrast between the two, if you want to have a holistic study of linguistic problems.

    语言功能与语言形式,是语言这块“硬币”两个不同的表现方面;功能研究与形式研究,同样也构成了语言学研究的两个研究焦点。社会结构呈现出一种多元化的趋势,话语群体中普遍存在的语言变体现象,是这种多元化现象在社会成员言语行为方面的具体反映,单一的形式化分析,不足以满足这一要求。因此,语言学研究有必要采用一种形式与功能互补的观察视野,构建整体论意义上的语言学观。

 

12. How could do you demonstrate your correct understanding of the Register and the Context?

 如何说明你对语域及语境概念的正确理解?

A formal remark may have basically the same content as an informal one, but not necessarily the same social meaning. There are a pair of  directives and a pair of statements below, each with the same content but in two different register forms, and each  is believed to be appropriate for the particular context.

按照社会语言学的观点,一个正式的话语和一个非正式的话语的基本内容可能是相同的,但却不一定具有同样的社会意义。请看下面的一组祈使句和一组陈述句,其内容相同,却具有不同的语域形式,各句话被认为适用其特定的语境。

 

1) Formal:   Kindly extinguish the illumination upon exiting. Less formal: Please turn off the lights on your way out.

2) Formal:  Should one party incur financial inconveniences, the current rate is subject to negotiation.

Less formal: If one side has money problems, this payment agreement may be changed.

 

1) 正式:临离烦请关灯

不正式:你出去时,请把灯关了。

2)正式:倘若一方头寸紧,现率随调。

不正式:如果合同有一方钱有困难,付款条件就可能变。

 

13. Can you tell the difference between slang and well-accepted expressions? Try with specific cases.

     你能否区别俚语和规范表达?举例说明。

 

3) Stickley furniture may not be really smooth, but it’s pricey and fresh.

Improved Versions:

1) The delegates knew that the document they were signing was not perfect.

2) The candidate accused her opponent of often changing his views on the issues.

3) Stickley furniture may not be very comfortable, but it is expensive and fashionable.

 

14. How to avoid negative effects from excessive use of euphemism in verbal communication? Examples are necessary.

如何避免过度使用委婉语所产生的负面效果?请提供例句说明。

Examples of excessive use of euphemism:

1) The employees who had been notified of an interruption in their employment were referred to their outplacement manager.

2) The official acknowledged that he had misspoken when he said the troops had not engaged in any protective – reaction missions

3) The prisoner’s life will be terminated at dawn.

4) The non – essential personnel in this division will be vacationed by next week.

5) Reaching the top of the ladder of success must be a moving experience.

6) I was told that he did away with himself.

7) He’ll be accountable despite his diabolical skill.

8) It is a widespread but unproven hypothesis that the parameters of significant personal change for persons in mid – life are extremely narrow.

9) I purchased a residential property that was in need of substantial upgrading.

Improved versions:

1) The laid – off employees were told to speak to the person who would try to help them find new jobs.

2) The official admitted that he had lied when he claimed the troops had not engaged in any offensive missions.

3) The prisoner will be executed at dawn.

4) The unnecessary people in this division will be laid off by next week.

5) Being successful must be a pleasant experience.

6) I was told that he had committed suicide.

7) He’ll be accountable despite his impressive skill.

8) It is a widely held myth that middle-aged people can’t change.

9) I bought a house in need of repair.

 

15. Why should language instructors look to sociolinguistics?

语言教师为何应当关注社会语言学?

Sociolinguistics has contributed to a change of emphasis in the content of language teaching.

It has also contributed to innovations in materials and activities for the classroom.

It has contributed to a fresh look at the nature of language development and use.

It has contributed to a more fruitful perspective in this field. 

      1)社会语言学促进了语言教学内容与重点的改变;

      2)社会语言学有助于教材内容和教学活动的创新;

      3)社会语言学为卓有成效的教学研究提供了广阔天地;

      4)社会语言学为研究语言使用与语言发展提供了一种新视野。

 

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