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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

目 录  

2011-08-02 19:08:58|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Contents 目录

2011-07-26 18:09:04|  分类: 语言学辅导 |  标签: |字号大中小 订阅


 

PART ONE   第一部分   Language from within  语言系统

 

Chapter One: Introduction to Linguistics第一章  导入

 

一.   核心提示 

 

二.   概念定义 

 

langue vs. parole…

Competence vs. performance….

 

三、理解简答

1. What is language?

什么是语言?

2. What functions does language have?

语言有那些功能?

3. What are features of human language specified by C. Hockett?

霍基特阐明了人类语言的哪些特征?

4. What is linguistics?

什么是语言学?

5. What are the major branches of linguistics? What does each of them study?

   语言学的主要分支学科有哪些?其研究内容是什么?

6. Why is it that linguistics is scientific study of language?

为什么说语言学是一门科学?

7. Of the two major media of communication, speech and writing, which one is primary?

在两种主要交际媒介中,即口头语和书面语,哪一种是第一性的?

8. What is the difference between langue and parole?

语言和言语之间的区别是什么?

9. What is the distinction between the competence and the performance?

语言能力和言语行为有什么差异?

10. How is Sanussure’s distinction between langue and parole similar to Chomsky’s distinction between competence and performance?

索绪尔对语言和言语的区分与乔姆斯基对语言能力与语言运用的区分有什么相似之处?

11. What makes modern linguistics different from traditional grammar?

现代语言学与传统语法的不同之处在哪里?

12. Is modern linguistics mainly synchronic or diachronic?

现代语言学是主要是共时性的,还是历时性的?

   

     13. Does the traffic light system have duality? Can you explain by drawing a simple graph?

交通灯系统有二层性吗?

14. How do you comment on dog’s barking?

你如何看待狗吠?

     15. What is the recursive nature of language?

何谓语言的递归性?

16. Do body language and facial expression share or lack the distinctive properties of human language?

身体语言和面部表情具有人类语言的哪些独特特征?

17. Can you judge the synchronic or diachronic orientation just from the titles?

你能仅从书名判断著作的研究倾向是历时或共时的吗?

 18. Why is the distinction between competence and performance important in linguistics?
    为什么语言能力和语言运用的区分在语言学中很重要?

19. How do you understand arbitrariness in a sentence?

如何理解语句顺序的任意性?

20. Do you think that onomatopoeia indicates a non-arbitrary relationship between form and meaning?

你是否认为拟声词表明了形式与意义之间非任意的关系?

 

Chapter Two: Speech Sounds     第二章: 语音

               

一.   核心提示 

二.   概念定义

Phonetics……

Cardinal Vowels……

 

三、理解简答

 

1. How do the three branches of phonetics contribute to the study of speech sounds?

      语音学的三个分支对语音学的研究有什么贡献?

2. . How do phonetics and phonology differ in their focus of study?

    语音学和音位学的研究重心有何不同?

3. Where are the resonating cavities of a human being contained?

人类的发音的共鸣腔位于什么地方?

4. What is the function of the nasal cavity? How does it perform this function?

鼻腔的作用是什么?它如何发挥作用?

5. What are the various parts in the oral cavity which are involved in the production of speech sounds?

口腔中发音所涉及的各部分有哪些?

6. How broad transcription and narrow transcription differ from each other? Provide with examples.

举例说明宽式音标和严式音标的区别?

7. How are the English consonants classified?

英语的辅音如何分类?

8. How are the English vowels classified?

     英语的元音如何分类?

9. What is the phonetic symbol for each of the sound descriptions offered?

所给语音描述的语音符号是什么?

10. What are the phonetic features of each of the sounds given?

    所给语音符号的语音特征是什么?

11.Transcribe the following sentences into normal orthography.
                写出下列音标代表的英语句子

12. Who do you think will be more interested in the difference between, say, [l] and [l-], [p] and [ph], a phonetician or a phonologist? and Why?

语音学家和音位学家,哪一个更关心清晰音[l]和模糊音[l]以及[p]和[ph]的区别?为什么?

13. What is free variation?

    什么是自由变异

14. What is assimilation?

      什么是同化现象?

      15.What are distinctive features?

什么是区别特征?

16. What is a minimal pair and what is a minimal set? Why is it important to identify the minimal set in a language?   

什么是最小对立对?什么是最小对立组?为什么区别最小对立组在一种语言中非常重要?

17.Can you answer the following questions concerning English dialects?

能否回答下列关于英语方言问题?

18. What is complementary distribution?

     什么是互补分布?

19. What are the definitions of, with examples, the sequential rule, the assimilation rule, and the deletion rule?

举例说明什么是序列规则?什么是同化规则?什么是省略规则?

 

 

Chapter Three: Lexicology 第三章 语词

  

一、核心提示

二、概念定义 

   Morpheme….

   Loanshift….

  三、理解简答

 

1. What does morphology study?

形态学研究的是什么?

2. What are, with examples, the various types of morpheme used in English?

英语中有哪些所用语素?举例子说明。

3. What are the main inflectional affixes in English? What grammatical meaning do they convey?

      英语中有哪些主要屈折词缀?它们表达什么语法意义?

4. Can you find out the meaning of the following roots in English and give two or three words that contain each of them?

     能否指出下列英语词根的含义并分别举出两三个包含这些词根的单词?

5. What are the morphological rules that govern the use of the given derivational affixes?

     所给屈折词缀的用法的形态学规则是哪些?

6. What is collocation?

       什么是搭配?

7. What are the main features of the English compounds?

      英语复合词的主要特征是什么?

8. How to explain the formation and meaning of the following compounds?

      如何解释所给复合词的构成及意思?

9. How to understand word/lexicon/lexeme/vocabulary respectively?

       如何理解字词/词语/义素/词汇量?

10. Can you give the percentage of function words in this paragraph?

能否给出这段话中功能词的百分比?

11. Determine the original term from which the following words were back – formed.

      根据下列的逆构词确定其最初的形式。

12. How do you classify the following words?

如何将下列外来词语进行分类?

13.Can you identify the immediate etymological source of the following words?

  能否确定下列词语的直接语源?

 

Chapter Four: Semantics  第四章:语义

 

一、核心提示

二、概念定义

   Semantics…..

    Sense…..

 

三、理解简答

1. What is sense and what is reference? How are they related?

       什么是意思?什么是所指?它们之间有什么联系?

2. How many kinds of meanings did linguists find and study?

语言学家发现并研究哪几种意义?

 3. How to understand the difference between meaning, concept, connotation and denotation?

如何理解意义,概念,内涵,外延等相互间的区别?

4. What are the major types of synonyms in English?

英语中的几种主要同义关系是什么?

5. What is Homonymy, polysemy and hyponymy? Provide with examples.

什么是同形异义,一词多义,及上下义关系?举例说明。

6. How can words opposite in meaning be classified? To which category does each of the following pairs of antonyms belong?

        意义相反的词是如何分类的?下列反义词属于哪一类?

7. What are the relations between the following pairs of sentences?

下列几组句子间的关系是什么?

8. In what way is componential analysis similar to the analysis of phonemes into distinctive features?

成分分析和把音位分析为区别性特征有何相似之处?

19 What is grammaticality? What might make a grammatically meaningful sentence semantically meaningless?

什么是语法性?一个语法上有意义的句子可能由于什么而变得在语义上毫无意义?

10. What is predication analysis? Try to analyze the following sentences in terms of predication analysis

什么是述谓结构?试用述谓结构分析法分析所给句子。 

  11. What is Conceptualist View?

  什么是意念论?

12. What is Contextualism?

什么是语境理论?

13. What is Behaviorism?

        什么是行为主义论?

14. What is Hyponymy?

        什么下义关系?

15. What is Semantic Triangle?

什么是语义三角     

16.  How do you analyze each of the underlined constructions or word groups do the following?

如何分析下列划线的结构体和词组?

17. What are sense relations between sentences?

句子间的意思关系有哪些?

   

Chapter Five: Syntax 第五章 语序

 

一、核心提示

二、概念定义

   Syntax…..

   Cohesion….

三、理解简答

  

1. What is hierarchical structure?

        什么是层次结构?

2. What are phrase structure rules?

         什么是短语结构规则?

3. . What is Universal Grammar?

   什么是普遍语法?

4. What is X-bar Theory?

什么是爱克斯标杆理论?

5. What is a simple, coordinate, or complex sentence? Try to make use of the sentences offered to analyze.

什么是简单句、并列句,复合句 ?利用所给句子分析

6. How to describe syntactic structure (constituents) by using, with examples, tree diagrams?

如何使用树形图并通过句子来描述其成分结构?

7. How to reveal with examples given, the differences in sentential meanings by drawing a tree diagram?

如何用结构树形图画出句子中的意义关系区别?

8. What is Immediate Analysis? Try to disambiguate the sentences below by using the method.

         什么是直接成分分析法? 试用该方法解析下列句子的歧义。

9. Can you explain the main characteristics of subjects in English?

能否解释英语中主语的主要特征?
10. What is the D-structure for each of the sentences given?

         所给句子的深层结构是什么?

11. How do syntactic rules account for the ambiguity of sentences?

句法规则是如何解释句子的模糊性?

12. How to demonstrate the Recursive Properties?

   如何示范语句循环这一特点?

 

Chapter Six: Pragmatics   第六章      语用

 

一、核心提示

二、概念定义

Conversational implicature…..

Ostensive communication…..

 

三、理解简答

 

1. What does pragmatics study? How does it differ from traditional semantics?

语用学是研究什么的?它和传统语义学有什么不同?

2. How is the notion of context interpreted?

怎样解释语境这一概念?

3. How are sentence meaning and utterance meaning related, and how do they differ?

句子意义和话语意义有什么联系,又有哪些区别?

4. What possible contexts in which the given sentences can be used for other purposes than just stating facts?

    哪些语境可能使所给的句子改变陈述事实而转作其它的用途?

5. Of the following pairs of sentences, say whether A entails B in each case?

在下列句子中,各组的A都能衍推B吗?

6. According to Austin, what are the three acts a person is possibly performing while making utterance? Give an example.

根据奥斯汀的提法,人们说话时有可能实施哪三种行为?

7. Each of following conversational fragments is to some degree odd. To What extent can the oddness be explained by reference to Grice’s CP and Maxims?

下面对话多少都有点问题,请问多大程度上,这些问题能用格赖斯的合作原则及其准则加以解释?

8. What are the five types of illocutionary speech acts Searle has specified? What is the illocutionary point of each type?

瑟尔把言外行为详细地分为哪五类?每一类的言外之力是什么?

9. In terms of the Gricean theory, what maxim is exploited in the following?

按照格赖斯理论,以下利用了什么准则?

10.What are the four maxims of the CP? How does the violation of these maxims give rise to conversational implicatures?

合作原则下属的四条准则是什么?

 

Chapter Seven: Historical Linguistics  第七章      历史语言学

 

一、核心提示

二、 概念定义

historical Linguistics….

language family vs. family tree….

三、理解简答  

1. What to conclude about the nature of language change from the linguistic division of English language history?

       如何从英语语言发展史期的划分来理解语言变化的实质?

 

2. What are the major historical events that led to the English transition from one period to the next?

      导致英语从上一个阶段向下一阶段转变的主要历史事件有哪些?

3. What are the main factors leading to language change?

引起语言变化的主要因素有哪些?

4. Why the word order of Old English is more varied than that of Modern English?

   古英语的词序为何要比现代英语的词序多样化?

5. How to define the terms given?

      如何定义所给术语?

6. What is the original source language for each of the words provided?

   所给词汇源于何种语言?

7. What types of semantic change can be identified from the clues given?

    根据提示可以判断出何类语义演变?

8. What is the purpose of reconstruction in historical linguistics and the method employed    

   by historical linguists?

历史语言学中的重新构建的目的及历史语言学家所用的方法是什么?

9. Can you offer examples to show sound changes in English language?

     能否举例说明英语的音变?

10. What syntactic changes took place in English? Examples are necessary.

    英语中发生了那些句法变化?举例说明。

 

 

           PART TWO 第二部分


                     Linguistics Related to Disciplines

                     语言学与其它学科

 

Chapter Eight: Language and ethnology   第八章 语言与人类

 

一、核心提示

二、 概念定义

Sociolinguistics….

Ethnography of Communication:….

三、理解简答  

1. What are some important contributions that sociolinguistics has made to linguistic studies?

社会语言学对语言研究有何重要贡献?

     2. What is the field of discourse?

什么是话语场

    3. What are some aspects of sociolinguistic research in social dialects?

社会语言学研究社会方言的那些方面?

4. What should be noticed by sociolinguists about a speech community?

   社会语言学家注意言语社团的哪些现象?

5. What is Anthropological Study of Linguistics? 

什么是人类语言学:

6. Why do we need to teach culture in our language classroom? 

语言教学为何需要文化学习?

    7.What are the three features of Black English?

黑人英语的三种特征是什么?至少要包括一种音系特点和一种句法特征。

8. What distinction, if any, can you draw between bilingualism and diglossia?

双言现象和双语现象有何区别?

9. How do the speech of women and the speech of men differ from each other?

女性言语与男性言语相异在哪些方面?

10. Can you point out some words considered as instances of sexist language?

能否举例说明英语中存在性别歧视的例子?

11. As a student of linguistics, how should we understand the relationships between functionalism and formalism?

作为语言学专业的学生,如何理解功能与形式之间的关系?

     12.How could do you demonstrate your correct understanding of the Register and the Context?

   如何说明你对语域及语境概念的正确理解?

13. Can you tell the difference between slang and well-accepted expressions? Try with specific cases.

  你能否区别俚语和规范表达?用例句说明。

14. How to avoid negative effects from excessive use of euphemism in verbal communication? Examples are necessary.

如何避免过度使用委婉语所产生的负面效果?请提供例句说明。

15. Why should language instructors look to sociolinguistics?

语言教师为何应当关注社会语言学?

 

Chapter Nine: Language and Cognition    第九章      语言过程

一、核心提示 

二、概念定义

Holophrastic stage:….

blend space….

三、理解简答

1. What is psycholinguistics?

什么是心理语言学?

2.       What is the definition of cognitive linguistics?

认知语言学的定义是什么?

3. What is role, domain, and reputation?

  什么是范围? 什么是角色?什么是威信?

4. What is dichotic listening?

什么是两耳分听?

5. What is the critical period?

什么是关键期?

6. What is code-switching?

什么是语码转换?

7. What is cerebral cortex? And what is brain lateralization?

什么是大脑皮层? 什么是大脑侧化?

8. What are the various aspects of process of language production?

语言产生过程有那些方面?

9. What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?

什么是萨丕尔-沃尔夫假说?

10. What is intrepersonal communication?

     什么是自我交际?

11. In what cortical regions are speech and language thought to be localized?

据认为言语和语言能力位于大脑皮层的哪几个区?

 12. Describe the three categories of conceptual metaphors.

请描述三类概念隐喻。

13.What is that one research technique that has provided linguists with information about the localization of speech and language in the brain?

何种研究方法为语言学家提供了有关言语和语言能力在大脑中的位置的信息?

14. What type of result would we expect to obtain from such people on a dichotic listening task? 

从两耳分听实验,我们期望得到怎样的结果呢?

15. What do you think is the processes of language perception, comprehension and production?

语言的感知、理解和表达过程是怎样的?

16. What does the aphasic substitution reveal about how words are likely to be stored in the brain? 

失语症患者的词语替换体现了单词可能是以何种方式存储在大脑中的?

17. What evidence can be given for the view that there is a critical period for language acquisition?

有何证据表明语言学习有一个关键期?

18. How in your view does language relate to thought and culture?

你认为语言与思维和文化是什么关系?

19.What are the arguments against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

对萨丕尔-沃尔夫假设有哪些质疑?

 

Chapter Ten: Language and Teaching   第十章      语言与外语教学

 

一、核心提示

二、 概念定义

behaviorist learning theory….

errors and mistakes….

三、理解简答

   1.language acquisition? How does a child acquire his mother tongue?

什么是语言习得?儿童是怎样习得母语的?

   2. Why should language teachers learn some knowledge of linguistics?

为什么语言教师要学习一些语言学知识?

   3. What is focus on form?  

什么是关注形式?

   4. What is instrumental motivation? And what is integrative motivation?

什么是工具性学习动机? 什么是介入性学习动机?

   5. What is telegraphic speech?  What is holophrase? What is over-extension?

 什么是电报式言语? 什么是单词句? 什么是扩展过度?

   6. What is interference? What is cross-association?

什么是干扰? 什么是交互联想?

7. What is the biological basis of child language acquisition?

儿童语言习得的生物基础是什么?

8. What is supporting evidence for the argument that children acquiring language do not simply memorize words and sentences?

有何证据表明儿童并非仅仅通过记忆单词与句子来习得语言的?

     9. How do you account for the phenomenon of young children’s apparent retrogression?

如何解释儿童一些明显的语言退化现象?

     10. What happens to a young child’s speech when he/she tries to make negative statement?

    在幼儿语言发展过程中,他们通常是如何表达否定式的?

     11. What might we expect a young child to use some words employed by adults?

根据过度概括这一事实,你能做出哪些判断?

      12. How do you comment on the two contrasting views with reference to the behaviorist learning model and the nativist biological model?

如何看待行为主义学习理论和生物先天论这两种相对立的观点?

    13. What do you say about one major factor which contributes to the difficulties most second language learners encounter?

能否谈一谈导致大多数第二语言学习者学习困难的某个主要因素?

    14. What is the discourse-based view of language teaching? 

基于语篇的语言教学观是什么?

    15. Can you enumerate some causes that lead to the systematic occurrence of errors in second language acquisition?

能否列举一些有关第二语言习得中出现系统性错误的原因?

     16. What are the effects of formal instruction on second language acquisition?

正规教学对第二语言习得有哪些影响?

17. What are real-world tasks and pedagogical tasks? Can you give some examples?

真实任务和教学任务分别是什么?你能否举例?

      18. What are the most important tasks for a syllabus designer?  

对于教学大纲设计者而言,最重要的任务是什么?

      19. What is a structural syllabus? 

什么是结构教学大纲?

       20. What is Contrastive Analysis? 

什么是对比分析?

 

            PART THRE 第三部分

Chapter Eleven: Views of languages and schools of linguistics   第十一章:语言学重要观点及学术派别

 

一、核心提示

二、概念定义

F. de Saussure….

Generative Semantics…..

三、理解简答

 

1. What are the three important points of the Prague School?

布拉格学派的三个重要观点是什么?

    2. What is the essence of Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP)? .

功能句子观的本质是什么?

3.      What is the difference between Malinowski and Firth on context of situation?

马林诺维斯基与弗斯对情景语境的看法有何不同?

4. What is the relation between Systemic Grammar and Functional Grammar?

系统语法与功能语法是什么关系?

 

5. Analyze the following Relational-process sentences according to their mode and type.

根据形式和类型,分析下列关系过程句子。

    6. What are the special features of American structuralism?

美国结构主义的特征是什么?

    7. How is behaviorist psychology related to Linguistics?

行为主义心理学与语言学有何关系?

    8. What is Harris’ s most important contribution to linguistics?

哈里斯对语言学最重要的贡献是什么?

    9. What is the theoretical importance of Tagmemics?

法位学的理论重要性是什么?

10. How many stages of development has Chomsky ' s TG Grammar undergone ?

乔姆斯基的转换生成语法经历了几个发展阶段?

11. What does Chomsky mean by Language Acquisition Device?

乔姆斯基所说的语言习得机制是什么?

12. Why do you think Generative Grammar can produce well-formed sentences?

为什么生成语法能够生成正确的句子?

13. Why can a sentence like John kills John be transformed into John kills himself?

   为什么“约翰杀死约翰”这样的句子能够被转换成“约翰杀死自己”?

 

14. What is special about TG Grammar?

转换生成语法的特殊之处是什么?


 

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