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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Model Test One  

2011-08-05 00:30:48|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. Define the following terms, giving examples for illustration if it is necessary.

 

           1.      macrolinguistics::_______________________

           2.      compound:_____________________________

           3.      Reference: _____________________________

           4.      Idiolect:________________________________

           5.      Minimal pair:___________________________

           6.      Competence:___________________________

           7.      Diglossia: _____________________________

           8.      Sound assimilation:______________________

          9.      Arbitrariness:___________________________

          10.   Semantic shift:_________________________

 

II. Indicate the following statements true or false.

   1. Language use is both systematic and non-systematic, subject to external as well as to internal variation.                                              

   2. Corpus is a collection of texts input into a computer. Language corpora make it possible for material developers to select authentic, natural and typical language.                                           

  3. Mistakes often occur when learners fail to perform their competence.                                   

  4. Root is understood in terms of meanings while syem is understood with emphasis on affix. Sometimes a linguistic element is both a root and stem.                             

  5.      All instances of NP--movement are related to changing a sentence from the active voice to the passive voice.                         

  6.  Word lays in the central position in language comprehension because of its extremely important role in transmitting the meaning. 

  7.  A perlocutionary act is the act of expressing the speaker’s intention.                      

  8.  The cohort model is a supposed doctrine dealing with the spoken word recognition, whose process features that the first few phonemes of a spoken word activate a set or cohort of word candidates that are consistent with the input.                                             

  9.  Componential analysis is based on the belief that the meaning of a word can not be dissected into meaning components, called semantic feature.                                       

 10. Word recognition can be viewed in terms of recognition of spoken words and printed ones.   

  

III. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word that begins with the letter given.

1. “ Words are names of labels for things.” This view is called n______ theory in semantic studies. 

2.      We call the relation between “animal” and “cow” as h______.

3.      Members that can be grouped under the same superordinate are called c______.

4.      In general, language a_____ refers to children’s development of their mother tongue, that is, the one language used by the community where the children are brought up.

5.      The description of a language development at some point in time is s______ study.

6.      Linguistic potential is similar to Sausssure’s “langue” and Chomsky’s “c_____’.

7.      There are two very important phonological rules in English : the a_____ rule and the d_____.

8.  The view that b_____ is the source of human language and cognition goes back over 2000 years.

9. The localization of cognitive and perceptual functions in a particular hemisphere of the brain is called l_____.

10. G______ marking in Old English was not always related to the sex of the reference concerned.

VI. Mark the choice that would best complete the statement.

1. The semantic components of the word" husband" can be expressed as______.

                         A. + animate, + human, + male, -adult

                         B. + animate, + human, -male, -adult

                        C.+ animate, + human, + male, + adult

                        D. + animate, - human, + male, -adult

2.  Saussure is a (n)_______ linguist.

                      A. American         B. British    C. Swiss            D. Russian

3. What is the meaning relationship between the two words " vegetable/tomato" ?

                  A. Polysemy     B. Homonymy   C. Hyponymy    D. Antonymy

4. The study of language development over a period of time is generally called ______ linguistics.

                 A. applied       B. synchronic    C. comparative   D. diachronic

5. Linguists give priority to the spoken language not the written language because_______.

                  A. vocal sounds are derived from writing systems

                 B. speech precedes writing everywhere in the world

                 C. we have recording devices to study speech

                 D. spoken language precedes written language only in Indo-European languages

6. A linguist regards the changes in language and languages use as________.

               A. unnatural     B. something to be feared    C. natural       D. abnormal

7. The theory that language arose from instinctive emotional cries, expressive of pain or joy has been called the _________ theory.

               A. yo-he-ho    B. pooh-pooh   C. contact      D. sing-song 

8.      Which of the following sounds is a voiceless bilabial stop?

               A. [p]        B. [m]      C. [ b ]       D. [ t ]

9. Morphemes that represent “tense, “number”, “gender”, “case” and so forth are called _____ morphemes.

               A. inflectional   B. free     C. bound        D. derivational

10. Which of the following is not of the major lexical categories?

               A. verb        B. determiner     C. adjective     D. noun

11. In English if a word begins with a [ l ] or [ r ], then the next sound must be a ______.

               A. fricative     B. nasal sound    C. semi-vowel   D. vowel

12.   There are ______morphemes in the word “boyish”.

               A. one        B. two     C. three       D. four

13.  In English “-ise” and “-tion” are called ______.

              A. prefixes      B. suffixes      C. infixes       D. free morphemes

14. Which of the following two-term sets shows the feature of complementarity?

               A. single/married     B. lend/borrow     C. hot/cold.          D. old/young

15. Which of the following languages is most pragmatic by nature?

              A. Chinese             B. Japanese     C. English              D. French

16.   Probably the most widespread and familiar ethnic        variety of the English language is _____. 

              A. British English     B. American English     C. Black English   D. Australian

17.  ______ in a person’s speech, or writing, usually ranges on a continuum from casual to formal according to the type of communicative context.

                A. Stylistic variation      

                B. Ideolectal variation

                C. Social variation     

                D. Regional variation

18. By studying sound correspondences from many languages, European linguists eventually claimed that most of the languages of  

      ____ belonged to the same Indo-European language family.

                A. Europe and northern part of India

                B. Europe and northern part of Asia

                C. Europe and Persia and northern part of India

                D. Europe and Persia

19. Which of the following goes along best with London School? 

                A. Firth            B. Bloomfield    C. Saussure         D. Sapir

20. Phonetically, the stress of a compound always falls on the___ element, while the ____ element receives the secondary stress.

               A.    first…second       B.     second…first       C.     any…any        D. none of above

 

V.  Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible, giving examples if necessary.

 

1. How can a linguist make his analysis of language as scientific as possible?

   2. What arc the design features of language?

   3. What is displacement as a design feature of language?

   4. The following are some well-known ambiguous sentences in  syntactic studies of language Can you disambiguate them?
                     (1) The chicken is too hot to eat.    
                     (2) Flying planes can be dangerous.

5.   What organs are involved in speech production?

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