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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test One  

2011-08-05 00:33:32|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. 1. It is a broad conception of linguistic enquiry, including psychological, cultural, social, computational, literary, foreign language teaching, cognitive etc.

2. It refers to the words that consist of more than one lexical morpheme or the way to joint two separate words to produce a single form, such as classroom, mailbox, fingerprint, sunburn.

3.  Reference is what a linguistic form refers to in the real world; it is a matter of the relationship between the form and the reality.

4.  Every speaker has his or her own pet words and expressions and special way of conveying ideas. Therefore within one linguistic community, there are all sorts of differences among individual speakers. We call this phenomenon as idiolect.

5.  Two sound combinations identical in every way except in one sound element that occurs in the same position in the string.

6.  “Competence” refers to the ideal user’s knowledge of rules of his language, that is, of its sound structure, its words and its grammatical rules. Competence enables a speaker to produce and understand verbal expressions. A speaker’s competence is stable while his performance is often influenced by psychological and social factors.

7.  Diglossia is a sociolinguistic situation in which two very different varieties of language co – exist in a speech community, each serving a particular social function and used for a particular situation.

8.  Speech sounds seldom occur in isolation. In connected speech, under the influence of their neighbors, are replaced by other sounds, Sometimes two neighboring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both the original sounds. This process is called sound assimilation.

 9.  Arbitrariness is one of the features of human language. It says that language is a sign of sophistication only humans are capable of. Animals cannot establish artificial /learned means to express themselves.

10. It is a process of semantic change in which a word loses its former meaning and acquires a new, sometimes related, meaning.

II.  1.T  2.T  3.T  4. T   5. F  6. T  7. F  8. T  9. F  T

III.  1. naming  2. hyponymy  3. co-hyponyms  4.acquisiton  5. synchronic 6.competence 7.assimilation; deletion 8.brain  9. lateralization  10.gender

IV. 1.C  2.C  3.C  4.D  5.B  6.C  7.B  8.A  9.A 

10.B  11.D  12.B  13.B  14.A  15.A  16.C  17.B 

18.C  19.A  20.A

V. 1.  He should base his linguistic study on the systematic investigation of authentic language data. No serious linguistic conclusion is reached until after the linguist has done the following three things: observing the way language is actually used, formulating some hypotheses, and testing these hypotheses against linguistic facts to prove their validity. During the whole process of his research, a linguist usually follows four principles: exclusiveness, consistency, economy and objectivity.

 2.  As far as the book is concerned, five features have been discussed. They respectively are: Arbitrariness; Creativity; Duality; Displacement; Cultural transmission

 3.  No animal can “talk” about things removed from the immediate situation. A dog can never purposefully phonetically /vocally tell its owner what happened three days before.

 4. There are two meanings to ex. (1): (a) The chicken meat is too hot, so it cannot be eaten at the moment; (b) The chicken feels so hot (maybe after some intense aerobic exercises ) that it cannot start eating and needs to calm down first.
       The ambiguity of ex. (2) comes from “flying planes”. It can be deciphered as “the planes that is flying”, or “to fly planes”.

 5.  Quite a few human organs are Involved in the production of speech: the lungs, the trachea (or windpipe), the throat, the nose, and the mouth.
        The pharynx, mouth, and nose form the three cavities of the vocal tract. Speech sounds are produced with an air-stream as their sources of energy. In most circumstances, the air-stream comes from the lungs. It is forced out of the lungs and then passes through the bronchioles and bronchi, a series of branching tubes, into the trachea. Then the air is modified at various points in various ways in the larynx, and in the oral and nasal cavities: the mouth and the nose are often referred to, respectively, as the oral cavity and the nasal cavity.  

 

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