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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Model Test Two  

2011-08-05 00:44:32|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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           I. Define the following terms, giving examples for illustration if it is necessary.

                 1. Conceptual meaning::______________________

                 2. Hierarchical structure:__________________

                 3 . Sentence ____________________________

                 4. Suprasegmental features:_________________

                 5.      Allophone:___________________________

                 6.      Language performance:_________________

                 7.      X-bar theory:_________________________

                 8.      Epenthesis:___________________________

                 9.      Sense:______________________________

                10.  Register:_____________________________

 

II. Indicate the following statements true or false.

     1. Pairs of words that exhibit the reversal of a relationship the two items are said to be relational opposites.                    

     2. Derivational morphemes never change the syntactic category of the words to which they are attached.                            

     3. In linguistic study, linguists first work out a theory about language structure, then, test it with language facts.                       

    4. Early linguistics was mostly prescriptive because it set rules for language users to follow.                          

    5.  As the process of communication is essentially a process of conveying meaning in a certain context, pragmatics can also be considered as a kind of meaning study.               

    6. Children who suffer aphasia after puberty have a much more rapid and complete recovery than do other children.                     

    7. Errors usually arise from the learner’s lack of knowledge; it represents a lack of competence.                 

    8.  Prague School is one of the three most influential representatives of structuralism in modern linguistics after Saussure.                                

    9.   The study of sound, in the mind of linguists, is of greater significance than that of speech.                      

   10.  The words donate, babysit, enthuse are formed in the way of backformation.                       

 

III. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given.

    1. Language is an a_______ system of articulated sounds made use of by a group of humans as a means of carrying on the affairs of their society.

    2. The earliest grammar of any language was S______ grammar by the Hindu scholar Panini.

    3. Theory that primitive man made involuntary vocal noises while performing heavy work has been called the y_________ theory.

    4. The theory that language arose from instinctive emotional cries, expressive of pain or joy has been called the p_________ theory.

    5. The theory that language arose from human beings instinctive need for contact with his companion has been called the c_________ theory.

    6. The reason why languages other than our own sound like gibberish is because we have not mastered the complexity of their s_________.

    7. Language is called upon not only for communications, but also for i______ and cultural t_______.

    8. The syllabic structures in English are rather complex and varied, such as key-CV, spree   C______, and scram-CCCVC.

    9. P______ can be defined as the study of language in use and linguistic communication.

   10. Predication analysis is to break down predications into their constituents: a______ and a p______.

 

IV. Mark the choice that would best complete the statement.

1. Linguistics is a branch of science which takes ______as its object of investigation.

                     A. parole         B. language         C. society         D. message

2. A linguistic study is descriptive if it describes and analyses facts observed; it is ______ if it tries to lay down rules for "correct" behavior.

                     A. rule-governed     B. GT    C. prescriptive       D. analytical

3. Which of the following is not the concern within Sociolinguistics?

                     A. tone      B. register    C. gender      D. slang

4. Generally speaking, we can divide phonetics into at least three branches: articulatory phonetics, auditory phonetics and ______ phonetics.

                    A. hearing      B. acoustic     C. sound       D. none of above

5. Morphology is generally divided into two fields: the study of word formation and ______.

                    A. affixation    B. etymology    C. inflection    D. root

6. The three subtypes of affixes are: prefix, suffix and ______.

                    A. derivational   B. inflectional   C. infix         D. back-formation

7. In order to reduce the ambiguity of the term "word", the term “______” is postulated as the abstract unit which refers to the smallest unit in the meaning.

                    A. semanteme    B. morpheme    C. lexeme       D. phoneme

8. IC Analysis can be represented in different ways such as tree diagrams or ______.

                   A. bracketing    B. linear     C. vertical       D. dimensional

9  .  ______ construction refers to two or more words, phrases or clauses having equivalent syntactic status.

                   A. parallel      B. complex    C. compound   D. coordinate

10. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has two thrusts: linguistic ______ and linguistic relativity.

                   A. creation      B. originality    C. determinism   D. competence

11. Traditional grammar lays emphasis on______, linguistic excellence, the use of Latin models and the priority of the written 1anguage.

                   A. model      B. correctness    C. grammar    D. practice

12.  In 1957, N. Chomsky published his famous book “______ Structure".

                   A. Sentence    B. Syntactic   C. Seman      D. Surface

13.  ______ is a way in which new words may be formed from already existing words by substracting an affix which is thought to be part of the old word.

                   A. affixation    B. backformation     C. insertion     D. addition

14. There are _____ morphemes in the word "teachers".

                   A. one      B. three    C. two      D. four

15. The violation of one or more of the conversational ______(of the CP Principle) can, when the listener ful1y understands the speaker, create conversational implicature, and humor sometimes.

                    A. standards   B. principles       C. levels      D. maxims

   16. Intelligibility means that any human being can be both a producer and a ______ of messages.

                    A. sender     B. receiver     C. medium    D. none of above

17.Which of the following sounds is a monophthong?

                    A. [ i ]      B. [ au ]    C. [ ai ]     D. [ei ]

18. Symbols are said to be arbitrary because they do not ______ what they represent.

                   A. perform   B. decode      C look like   D. communicate

      19. ______ is formed by a narrowing of the air passage at some point so that the air in escaping makes a sort of hissing sound.

                   A. fricative    B. plosive   C. liquid      D. lateral  

      20. Conventionally a ____ is placed in slashes.

                   A. phone      B. phoneme    C. allophone   D. morpheme

 

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible, giving examples if necessary.

      1. Can you elaborate on the two contrastive views regarding theories of child language acquisition?

      2. Explain the purpose of reconstruction in historical linguistic and the method by historical linguists.

      3. The following sentences are believed to have derived from their D-structure representations. Show the D-structure for each of these sentences.

              (1) Where are you going?

              (2) The dog gnawed a bone.

              (3)   Shall I help you in some way?

             (4)   The librarian shoveled the volumes off and left.

4.      Is morpheme a grammatical concept or a semantic one? What is its relation to phoneme?

5. Write out the synonyms of the following words:
                          youth; automobile; remember; purchase; vacation; big

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