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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test Two  

2011-08-05 00:51:40|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. 1. This is the first type of meaning recognized by Leech, which he defined as the logical , cognitive , or denotative content . In other words, It overlaps to a large extent with the notion of reference. But Leech also uses "sense” as a briefer term for his conceptual meaning. As a result, Leech 's conceptual meaning has two sides : sense and reference .

2. The hierarchical structure means the sentence structure that groups words into structural constituents and shows syntactic categories of each structural constituent, such as NP and VP or PP.

3. A structurally independent unit that usually comprises a number of words to form a complete statement, question or command.

4. The phonemic features that occur above the level of the segments are called suprasegmental features; these are the phonological properties of such units as the syllable, the word, and the sentence. The main suprasegmental ones include stress, intonation, and tone.

5. Different phones which can represent a phoneme in different environment are called the allophone of that phoneme.

6.  “Performance” refers to the actualization of the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language in utterances. It means the actual saying of something, the act of speech itself.

7. X-bar theory is a general and highly abstract schema that collapses all phrase structure rules into one single format:

 

Keys to Model Test Two - 甘世安 - 甘世安的博客

  


8.  The insertion of a consonant or vowel sound to the middle of a word.

9.  In contrast to reference, sense may be defined as the semantic relations between one word and another, or more generally between one linguistic unit and another . It is concerned with the intralinguistic relations.

10.  Register refers to a functional speech or language variety that involves degrees of formality depending on the speech situation concerned. It is concerned with the addresser and the addressee’s relationship to experience, to each other and to the medium of transmission, reflects the part or role played by language and also selects the part which can be played by other forms of intentionally communicative behavior. Thus the selection of one register rather than another in different situations is closely related with the question of use.

 

II.  1.T  2.F   3.F  4.T  5.T  6.F  7.T  8.T  9.F  10.T

III. 1.arbitrary 2. Sanskrit; 3.yo-he-ho; 4.pooh-pooh; 5.contact; 6.system; 7.interaction, transmission; 8.CCCV; 9.Pragmatics; 10.Argument, predicate

IV. 1.B  2.C  3.A  4.B  5.C  6.B  7.C  8.A  9.D  10.C  11.B  12.B  13.B  14.B  15.D  16.B  17.A  18.C  19.A  20.B

V.  1. Different theories of child language acquisition have been advanced. They are concerned with understanding the nature or process of language learning. The two contrasting views. One is behaviorist and other is nativist.

The Behaviorist view:

Language acquisition is a process of habit formation. Language is learned through stimulus and response. Reinforcement of selected responses is the key to understanding language development. Children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong.

The Nativist view:

Language acquisition is the species – specific property of human beings. Children are born with an innate ability to acquire language. They are predisposed to develop their native language along a universal, predetermined route through similar stages. They go about acquiring the grammar of their native language using principles unique to language acquisition.

   2.   Historical linguistics aim at establishing through the method of comparative reconstruction, the genetic relationship between and among various language based on the evidence of systematic form—meaning resemblance in cognate items, and thereby to reconstruct the protolanguage of a language family.

3.

(1)   You are going where.

(2)   The dog past gnaw a bone.

(3)   I shall help you in some way.

(4)   The librarian shoveled off the volumes and left.

    4.   As a matter of fact, morpheme is both a grammatical concept and a semantic one. For instance , we can recognize that English word 一forms such as talks , talker , talked and talking must consist of one element talk , and a number of other elements such ass ,一er ,一ed ,一ing . All these elements are described as morphemes. The definition of morpheme is “the smallest unit of language in terms of the relationship between expression and content”. We would say that the word reopened in the sentence. The police reopened the investigation consists of three morphemes. One minimal unit of meaning is open , another minimal unit of meaning is re - ( meaning again ) , and a minimal unit of grammatical function is 一ed ( indicating past tense ) . Therefore, we are in a position to conclude that those which can stand by themselves as single words , e.g . open,are semantic concepts , and those which cannot normally stand alone , but which are typically attached to another form , e.g . re-,-ist , -ed , -s, are grammatical concepts .

   5.  youth ( adolescent ) ; automobile ( car ) ; remember ( recall ) ; purchase ( buy ) ;  vacation ( holidays ) ; big ( large )

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