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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Model Test Four  

2011-08-05 11:14:07|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. Define the following terms, giving examples for illustration if it is necessary.

                       (a)    Ostensivecommunication::______________

                       (b)   Conceptualism: _____________________

                       (c)    Behaviorism: _______________________

                       (d)   Matrix clause: ______________________

                       (e)    Inflection: __________________________

                       (f)    performative:: ___________________

                       (g)   Broad transcription: _________________

                       (h)   Diachronic linguistics: _______________

                        (i)     Entailment: ________________________

                        (j)      Apocope: __________________________

 

II. Indicate the following statements true or false.

             1. The sentence “ I hate thee not” was considered normal form of negation in Middle English.                        

             2. Some modern words come from the morphological change of the Old English. For instance, “move” comes from “movement” and“teach” comes from “teachable”.                         

             3. It becomes progressively more difficult to acquire language after the age at which lateralization is complete.                          

            4. Human linguistic behavior is attributable to particular parts of the human brain where human language ability is localized.          

            5. The relationship between "human body" and "face/nose" is hyponymy.                                                  

            6.  Language change is universal, ongoing, and arbitrary.                          

            7. Often the low variety is regarded as a literary standard called a classical language.                                  

            8.  In Old English, a verb precedes the subject instead of following it.               

            9. There are words more or less the same meaning used in different regional dialects.                              

           10. What essentially distinguishes semantics and pragmatics is whether in the study of meaning the context of use is considered.         

 

III. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given.                           

            1. The two subtypes of affixes are p______ and s_______.

            2. The description of a language at some point in time is a s______ study.

            3.      The voca1 c______ are similar to strings such as one on a violin or a piano.

            4.      By m _______ p _______, we refer to word forms which differ from each other only by one sound, e. g., "pin" and "bin".

            5.  P ______can be defined as the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication.

            6.  SLA is viewed as a process of c _______construction, in which a learner constructs a series of internal representations that comprises the learner's interim knowledge of the target language, known as I_______.

            7.  P _______ is the study of language in relation to the mind.

            8.  Registers are language varieties appropriate for use in particular speech s_______.

            9.  It is generally accepted that the history of English language is divided into three period of O______ English, M______ English and M ______English.

           10. The notion of c _______is essential to the pragmatic study of language.

 

IV. Mark the choice that would best complete the statement.

         1. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human ______.

                 A. contact     B. communication    C. relation     D. community

         2. Of the words listed below, ______is not an English word.

                 A. [ r?b]       B [ l?b ]    C. [ m?st]      D. [ lm?p]

        3. One general principle of linguistic analysis is the primacy of _____ over writing.

                A. oration      B. speech      C. symbol      D. expression

       4. The distinction of linguistic potential and actual linguistic behavior is made by M. A. K. Ha1liday, a/an ______ linguist.

                A. Russian    B. British      C. American   D. Swiss

       5. ______ is the branch of linguistics which studies the meaning of language.

                     A generative grammar      B. semantics

                    C. psycholinguistics          D. pragmatics

       6. The ______ provided by the lungs has to undergo a number of modifications to acquire the quality of a speech sound.

                      A. sound     B. plosion      C. air stream  D. voice

       7. Most of the violations of the maxims of the CP give rise to______.

                        A. breakdown of conversation                             B. confusion of one's intention

                        C. hostility between speakers and the listeners     D. conversational implicatures

       8. Palatal semi-vowel refers to the sound______.

                        A. [ h ]         B. [ j ]                 C. [w ]         D. [ r ]

       9. Phonetic ______ is a method of writing down speech sounds in a systematic and consistent way.

                           A. description     B. transcription      C. transfer        D. recording

      10. Sweet made a distinction between narrow and   ______transcriptions.

                           A. wide        B. broad      C. short        D. long

      1l. Two sounds are in ______ ______ when they never occur in the same environment and do not contrast, namely, the substitution of one for the other does not produce a different word, but merely a different pronunciation.

                          A.    minimal pair       B. adjacency pair

                         C. free variation          D. complementary distribution

      l2. By the relation of ______ one means that words of different sets of clauses may permit, or require, the occurrence of a word of another set or class to form a sentence or a particular part of a sentence.

                            A. opposition    B. co-occurrence     C. synonymy    D. antonymy

      l3. Psychologically people tend to regard the first major constituent of a sentence as the ______.

                           A. argument     B. subject         C. statement     D. relativity

     14. The ______ category is used in the analysis of word classes to identify the syntactic relationship between words in a sentence.

                            A. case       B. gender      C. major      D. minor

      l5.  ______may be defined as the requirement that the forms of two or more words of specific word classes that stand in specific syntactic relationship with one another should also be characterized by the same paradigmatically marked category.

                           A. Formation     B. Concord       C. Principle      D. Structure

     16. Predication analysis is to break down predications into their constituents:______ and a ______.

                           A. arguments…predicate      B. NP…VP     C. noun…verb        D. PP……AP

     17. What kind of patients cannot convert a visual stimulus into an auditory form and vice versa?

                             A. The linguistic deprivation     B. Broca’ s aphasics

                             C. Wernicke’ s aphasics         D. The damage on the angular gyrus

      l8. The syllabic structures in English are rather complex and varied, such as key CV, Spree

          _______ , scram CCCVC.

                              A. CVC         B. VVCC         C. CCCV       D. CCCVV

     19. ______ can be defined as the study of language in use and linguistic communication.

                               A. Semantics    B. Pragmatics     C. Morphology  D. Phonology

     20. Speech Act Theory was proposed by ________ in l962.

                              (a)    Saussure      B. Austin      C. Chomsky      D. Grimm

 

V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible, giving examples if necessary.

  (a)                                                                                                                                                                                                                           What is the significance of discovering langue and parole?

(b)                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Discuss the biological basis of child language acquisition.

  (c)                                                                                                                                                                                                                         What is pragmatics?

 4. Consider the following dialogue between a man and his daughter. Try to explain the illocutionary force in each of the utterances.

                 [The daughter walks into the kitchen and takes some popcorn.]

                 Father: I thought you were practicing you violin.

                 Daughter: I need to get the [violin] stand.

                 Father: Is it under the popcorn?

 5.  A is reading the newspaper. When B asks “What’s on television tonight?” He answers “Nothing.” What does A mean in normal sit-uations? Think of Two situations in which this interpretation of “Nothing” will be cancelled.

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