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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test Four  

2011-08-05 11:20:06|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. 1. or “inferential communication”, it is a shorthand for “ostensive-inferential communication”. That is, communication is not simply a matter of encoding and decoding, it also involves inference on the part of the hearer and ostension (making clear of one’s intention to express something) on the part of the speaker.

2.  This view holds that there is no direct link between a linguistic form and what it refers to; rather, in the interpretation of meaning they are linked through the mediation of concepts in the mind.

3.   It refers to the attempt to define the meaning of a language form as the “situation in which the speaker utters it and the response it calls forth in the hearer”(Bloomfield,1933). This theory is somewhat close to contextualism emphasizes on the psychological response.

4.  In a complex sentence, the clause into which it is embedded is called a matrix clause.

5.  The manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, tense, degree and case. 

6.  A performative is a sentence like “I name the ship the Queen Elizabeth”, which does not describe things and cannot be said to be true or false. The uttering of a performative sentence is, or is a part of, the doing of an action. Verbs like “name” are known as performative verbs.

 

7.  Broad transcription ——one letter symbol for one sound. For instance, the symbol [ l ] is used for the [ l ] in words like leaf [l:f ], feel [f:l ], child [?ai:ld] and health [helθ].

8. The study of language change through time. A diachronic study is a historical study of language, which studies the historical development of language over a period of time.

9. This is a logical relationship between two sentences in which the truth of the second necessarily follows from the truth of the first, while the falsity of the first follows from the falsity of the second. For example, when “I saw a boy” is necessarily true; and if “I saw a child” is not true, “I saw a boy” will not be true either.

10. The deletion of a word—final vowel sound.

II.  1.T   2. F  3.T  4.T  5.F  6.F  7.F  8.F  9.T  10.T

III.  1.prefix, suffix; 2.synchronic 3.chords; 4.minimal, pair;

5.pragmatics 6.creative, interlanguage; 7. Psycholinguistics; 8.system; 9.Old, Middle, Modern 10. context;

IV. 1.B  2.D  3.B  4.B  5.B  6.C  7.D  8.B  9.B  10.B  11.C  12.B  13.B  14.A  15.B  16.A  17.D  18.C  19.B  20.B

V.  1.  In distinguishing langue and parole, we are separating what is social from, what is individual and what is essential from what is accidental. It’s the distinction between langue and parole that leads to the distinction between phonetics and phonology. For example, when we describe the speech sound in “bed”, we found that they are different each time. They are uttered even by the same speaker; However the identity of “bed” does not depend on the nature of these actual sounds, but on the distinctions that separate “bed” from “bet” or ‘bad”.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2.  All children are biologically equipped with this capacity at birth. That is, children are born with the neutral prerequisites for language development and language use. Because language acquisition is biologically based, all normal children, except those with mental or physical impairments are capable of acquiring at least one language during the early period of life, a period corresponding to that of neural maturation of the brain. Because language acquisition is a natural tradition, intelligence, and opportunities to receive formal instruction and correction, follow the same natural rule of language development and acquire their native language with equal success.

   3.  Pragmatics studies how meaning is conveyed in the process of communication. It is a comparatively new branch of study in the area of linguistics; its development and establish in the 1960s and 1970s resulted mainly from the expansion of the study of linguistics, especially that of semantics. Generally it deals with how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication. The scope of pragmatic study includes “speech act theory”, “context”, “ conversation implicature”, presupposition, etc.

   4.  The illocutionary force of “ I thought you were practicing your violin” is a criticism of the daughter for her not practicing the violin. That of the daughter’s answer is a defense for herself ---I’m going to do that. And that of the father’s retort is a denial of the daughter’s excuse.

   5.  Normally “Nothing” here means “Nothing interesting”.  If A adds after “Nothing” “The workers are on strike” or “There’s going to be a blackout tonight”, then the interpretation of “Nothing interesting” will be cancelled.

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