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除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test Three  

2011-08-05 09:05:14|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I   1. The study of sound system---the inventory of distinctive sounds that occur in a language and the patterns into which they fall.

    2. It means that words of different sets of clauses may permit, or require, the occurrence of a  word of another set or class to form a sentence or a particular part of a sentence. For instance , what can precede a noun ( dog ) is usually the determiners and adjectives , and what can follow it when it takes the position of subject will be predicators such as bark , bite , run , etc . In short, co-occurrence is the syntactic environment in which a construction, with its relevant elements, can appear grammatically and conventionally. Thus relations of co-occurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations, partly to paradigmatic relations.

  3.  Lingua franca is a variety of language that serves as a common speech for social contact among groups of people who speak different native languages or dialects.

  4.  It is a general term used to refer to the development of a person’s first, second, or foreign language. That is, how he understands and to speak the language of his community.

  5. The term category in some approaches refers to classes and functions in its narrow sense ,e.g., noun , verb , subject , predicate , noun phrase , verb phrase , etc . More specifically, It refers to the defining properties of these general units: the categories of the noun, for example, include number, gender, case and countability; and of the verb, for example, tense, aspect , voice , and so on.

  6. Domain refers to a phenomenon that most bilingual communications have one thing in common, that is, a fairly clear functional differentiation of the two languages in respect of speech situations, for instance the Home Domain, Employment Domain etc.

  7. It refers to a separate linguistic system based on the observable out-put which results from a learner’s attempted production of a target language form. It is formed when he attempts to learn a new language, and it has features of both the first and the second language but is neither.

  8.  Acculturation refers to the process of adapting to the culture and value system of the second language Community.

  9. Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents, i.e., a word or a group of words, which serves as a definable Centre or Head. In the phrase two pretty girls, girls, is the Centre or Head of this phrase or word group.

  10.  Narrow transcription —— diacritics are added to the one – letter symbols to show the finer differences between sounds. For example, the sound [ l ] in the above mentioned words differ slightly. The [ l ] in leaf [ l:f ], occurring before a vowel is called a clear [ l ] and the [ l ] in feel [fi:l] , occurring at the end of a word or before another consonant is called a dark [ l ] and in narrow transcription the diacritic [ ~ ] is used to indicate it is a dark [ ? ]. Then in the sound combination [helθ] the sound is called a dental [l ] because it is followed by dental [θ ]

II.  1.T   2.F   3.F  4.T  5.F  6.T  7.T  8.F  9.F  10.T

III. 1. Broca’s; Wernicke’s; gyrus 2. vernacular; 3. dialect; 4. loss, gain; 5. borrowing, formation;

6. communication; 7.speech;  8. communicate, Cooperative Principle; 9.relative; 10. part;

IV.  1.D  2.B  3.A  4.B  5.C  6.C  7.C  8.B  9.B  10.A  11.B  12.D  13.B  14.B  15.A  16.C  17.B  18.A  19.B  20.A

V. 1. again; not or the opposite action;  greater or more than usual; badly or wrong(ly); listening; life; heat; half; emotion; in the     

manner of; disease of inflection of; to make of the stated  

type or put into the stated condition; the process of an action;

2.Consonants ca be classified in two ways:

  1) according to the manner of articulation;

  2) according to the place of articulation;

    3. Language is arbitrary in the sense that there is no intrinsic connection between the sounds that people use and the objects to which these sounds refer. The fact that different languages have different words for the same object is a good illustration the arbitrary nature of language. It is only our tacit agreement of utterance.

    4. ( a. )  ( nonheaded, independent clause )
               ( b )  ( non-head , prepositional phrase ) 
                ( c )  ( headed; headword 一damaged ; adjectival group )
               ( d )  ( headed; headword 一singing ; gerundial phrase )

   5. The grammatical category “subject” in different language possesses different characteristics. In English, "subject" may have the following characteristics:
               A. Word order: Subject ordinarily precedes the verb in a statement such as "Sally   collects stamps."

        B. Pronoun forms: The first and third person pronouns In English appear in a special form when the pronoun is a subject. This form is not used when the pronoun occurs in other positions:
                       He loves me   I love him.   We threw stones at them.   They threw stones at us.
               C. Agreement with verb: In the simple present tense, an -s is added to the verb when a third person subject is singular. However , the number and person of the object or any other element in the sentence have no effect at all on the form of the verb :
                       She angers him.They anger him.   She angers them.
               D. Content questions: if the subject, is replaced by a question word (who or what),   

  the rest of the sentence remains unchanged, as in ( b ) But when any other element of the sentence is replaced by a question word , an auxiliary verb must appear before the subject . If the basic sentence does not contain an auxiliary verb, we must Insert did or do (es) immediately after the question word, as in (d, e).

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