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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test Six  

2011-08-06 21:19:53|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I. 1.  The theory was proposed by Chomsky and developed by other generative linguists so far. UG, as is usually abbreviated, is a system of linguistic knowledge which is possessed only by human beings and exists in the minds of all normal people. That accounts for the very fact that an English baby’s mother tongue could be Japanese and a German baby’s could be Chinese language. All natural languages share a great number of features such as linear and hierarchical structures or primacy of speech. Specific languages differ in some way from one another due to historic, cultural and geographical facts. These differences are reflected by general principles and parameters from UG.

 2.  A general movement rule accounting for the syntactic behavior of any constituent movement.

3.  With respect to language comprehension, connectionism in psycholinguistics claims that readers use the same system of links between spelling units and sound units to generate the pronunciations of written words and to access the pronunciations of familiar words , or words that are exceptions to these patterns . In this view, similarity and frequency play important roles in processing and comprehending language, with the novel items being processed based on their similarity to the known ones.

 4.  Holophrastic stage is the first phase of language acquisition. The main linguistic accomplishments during this stage are control of the speech musculature and sensitivity to the phonetic distinctions used in the parents ' language. Shortly before their first birthday, babies begin to understand words, and around that birthday, they start to produce them. At this stage , words are usually produced in isolation ; this one一word stage can last from two months to a year . About half the words are for objects: food, body parts, clothing, vehicles, toys, household items, animals. There are words for actions, motions, and routines.

 5.  “IC analysis” is a new approach of sentence study that cuts a sentence into two(or more) segments. This sort of pure segmentation is simply dividing a sentence into its constituent elements without even knowing what they really are. What remain of the first cut are called “immediate constituents” and what are left at the finally cut are called “ultimate constituents”.

 6.  An isolating language is a one that depends on various roots or stems and word order to indicate their grammatical relations. Vietnamese is a typical isolating language. Isolating languages are at times called analytical language, but the latter are seen as opposed to synthetic language, where words contain more than one morpheme.

7. Bilingualism refers to a linguistic situation in which two standard languages are used in a speech community; whereas in a diglossic community, two varieties of language are used for different situations, one being more standard and higher, and used for more formal matters, and the other less prestigious, and used for colloquial situations.

8. An agglutinative language is one in which words are typically composed of a sequence of affixes added to the root. Turkish is a typical agglutinative language in which a word can be segmented into a root and several affixes. Japanese and Sudanese are also agglutinative languages.

9. A fusional language is the one in which morphemes in a word are fused together. As a result, it is hard to segment the word into its component parts. Latin is an example. Ancient Greek and Sanskrit can be grouped in this type.

10. Chinese is a tone language in which tones are used. Tones function to distinguish lexical meaning. Within tone languages, distinctions are made between those whose tones may be analyzed in terms of different contrasting levels (as several tone languages of Africa)Further distinction can be made on the basis of number of tones used, and to what uses they are put.

II.  1.T  2.T  3.T  4.F  5.F  6.T  7.T  8.F  9.T  10.T

III. 1.Middle; 2.diacritic; 3.lexeme; 4.psycholinguistics; 5.performative;  6.vocal; 7.deletion; 8.tongue; 9.narrow, broad; 10.sound;

IV. 1.B  2.A  3.D  4.C  5.D  6.D  7.C  8.C  9.B  10.B  11.A  12.A  13.D  14.B  15.C  16.A  17.C  18.B  19.D  20.A

V. 1. Modern linguistics is descriptive, which means its investigations are based on authentic, and mainly spoken language data. Modern linguistics mainly describes and analyses the facts of language.

Traditional grammar is prescriptive; it is based on “high” written language. It tries to lay down rules for “correct” or standard language behavior.

   2. Ogden and Richards presented the classic “Semantic Triangle” as manifested in the above diagram, in which the “symbol” refers to the linguistic elements (word, sentence, etc.), the “referent” refers to the object in the world of experience, and the “thought” or “reference” refers to concept or notion. Thus the symbol of a word signifies “things” by virtue of the “concept”, associated with the form of the word in the mind of the speaker of the language. The “concept” thus considered is the meaning of the word. The connection (represented with a dotted line) between symbol and referent is made possible only through “concept”.

  3. Let’s suppose this is a let-and-rent negotiation between a house owner and a room hunter. The owner does not mind the daughter, but the cat is not acceptable in the house.

4. Figure 一ground alignment seems to apply to space with the ground as the prepositional object and the preposition expressing the spatial relational configuration . It also applies to human perception of moving objects. Since the moving object is typically the most prominent one, because It is moving, it is typically the figure, while the remaining stimuli constitute the ground.

  5.  Psycholinguistics is the study of psychological aspects of language; it usually studies the psychological states and mental activity associated with the use of language. Most problems in psycholinguistics are more concrete, involving the study of language acquisition especially in children and linguistic performance such as producing and comprehending utterances or sentences among adults. An important focus of psycholinguistics is the largely unconscious application of grammatical rules that enable people to produce and comprehend intelligible sentences. Psycholinguists investigate the relationship between language and thought, a perennial subject of debate being whether language is a function of thinking or thought is a function of the use of language. Psycholinguistics is also concerned with how languages are learned, and the role they play in our thinking.

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