注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Keys to Model Test Eight  

2011-08-07 12:06:49|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

I. 1. According to Krashen 's INPUT HYPOTHESIS, learners acquire language as a result of comprehending input addressed to them. Krashen brought forward the concept of " i + 1 " principle , i.e . the language that learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still be challenged to make progress . Input should neither be so far beyond their reach that they are overwhelmed, nor so close to their current stage that they are not challenged at all.

2. The type of language constructed by second or foreign language learners who are still in the process of learning a language is often referred to as INTERLANGUAGE. Interlanguage is often understood as a language system between the target language and the learner's native language. It is imperfect compared with the target language, but it is not mere translation from the learner's native language.

3.  Speech community refers to a group of people who form a community and share at least one speech variety as well as similar linguistic norms.

4.  Pidgin is a marginal contact language with a limited vocabulary and reduced grammatical structures, used by native speakers of other languages as a means of business communication

5.  It is a new approach for sentential meaning analysis. Predication is usually considered an important common category shared by propositions, questions, commands, etc. Predication is to break down the sentence into their smaller constituents: argument (logical participant) and predicate (relation element). The “predicate” is the major or pivotal element governing the argument.

6.  Influenced by structuralist linguistics, the structural syllabus is a gramrnar oriented syllabus based on a selection of language items and structures. The vocabulary and grammatical rules included in the teaching materials are carefully ordered according to factors such as frequency, complexity and usefulness. The syllabus input is selected and graded according to grammatical notions of simplicity and complexly. These syllabuses introduce one item at a time and require mastery of that item before moving on to the next.

7. Pitch is a suprasegmental feature, whose domain of application is the syllable. Different rates of vibration produce what is known as different frequencies, and in auditory terms as different pitches. Pitch variations may be distinctive like phonemes, that is , when they may contribute to distinguish between different words. In this function, pitch variations are called tones.

8.  Socialect refers to a variety of language used by people belonging to a particular social class.

9.  A locutionary act is the act of uttering words, phrase, clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology.

  10.  A German grammarian, Grimm found a consonant shifts that occurred in the history of the Germanic languages including English. The following are the three sets of consonant shift that Grimm discovered:

1. Voiced stops become voiceless

              b    p    d    t     g     k  

2. Voiceless stops become fricatives

             p    f     t     θ    k     x  

3. Voiced aspirates become deaspirated

             bh    b     dh    d     gh    g

II.  1.F  2.F  3.F  4.T  5.F  6.T   7.F  8.T  9.F  10.T

III.  1.language; 2.root, affix; 3.phrase; 4.emotive 5.euphemism;  6. racial, sex;  7.language, acquisition;  8.reinforcement;  9. Contrastive Analysis  10.Articulatory, auditory;

IV. 1.B  2.B  3.C  4.A  5.C  6.A  7.D  8.C  9.B  10.A  11.D  12.D  13.D  14.C  15.A  16.A  17.C  18.A  19.B  20.C

V. 1. The speech act theory was proposed by J. Austin and J. Searle. It is about language used to “do thing”. Typical utterances are: “ I hereby declare war” “ I bet you five pounds it will snow tomorrow.” In these cases the uttering of the relevant words is the leading event, without which the action specified cannot be done.

       An indirect speech act means that some sentences, in the utterance and the seeming performance of a speech act, perform a certain illocutionary act indirectly. For example, “ Can you pass me the salt please?” is a question, but it is more of a request than of an interrogation about the hearer’s salt-passing ability. The problem is how it is possible for the speaker to say one thing and mean another, and how it is possible for the hearer to understand the indirect speech act. It is the shared backgound information and the general power of rationality and the power of inference on the part the hearer that co-operatively make it possible.

   2.  Ever since Plato’s time language has been considered as the dress of thought. It is true that people’s intention can usually be known through his own language, that without thinking, language would be meaningless and that without language, thought would be formless and inconceivable and inexpressible. This monistic view is opposed by dualists who can easily find and cite dozens of examples to prove that thought can be independent of language. That is why people, after thinking a lot, grope for words and say” I do not know how to put it.”.. Animals which are known to have no language as we know can think.( they can decide whom to roar at, who is master.). Language is after all one aspect of semiotics, some people argue. There are other communication means in addition to speaking. We can listen to music, for instance, and “talk” with the musician.

3.  Transformational-generative grammar, or TG Grammar, was introduced and formulated in the mid-1950s by Chomsky, who was interested in the study of the similarities between languages, rather than in differences, or in discovering and describing language universals. Firstly, he held that a linguist should first attempt to find a grammatical framework  which is suitable for all languages. Secondly, within this framework he should concentrate noy so much on elements that occur in all languages, as on finding elements and constructions available to all languages, whether they are employed or not. Thirdly, there are likely to be universal constrains on the ways linguistic elements combine. And to find these constrains is the task for linguists. As a result of his research, Chomsky proposed that the grammars of all human languages shared a common framework, which he called “transformational grammar”.

4.  A real-world task is very close to something we do in daily life or work. For example, students may be asked to work in groups, discuss how the sports facilities in their school can be improved (e.g. buy some new facilities) and make some suggestions to the headmaster. This is a real-world task because there are things like this in the real world. Pedagogical tasks are those activities that students do in the classroom but that may not take place in real life. For example, the students work in pairs. Each is given a picture. Most of the things in the pictures are the same, but there are some differences. The students are asked to describe their picture to each other and identify the differences. In this task, the students use language to do something, that is , to identify differences between two pictures in doing this task , they focus on meaning rather than form , because they are not asked to practice particular linguistic items . We say this is a pedagogical task rather than a real-world task because in daily 1ife we do not normally do things like this. It is pedagogical in the sense that it is designed to help the students to learn or review certain language knowledge or skills. This does not mean, however, that real-world tasks do not have any pedagogical purposes. 

5.  The process of syllabus design in foreign language teaching mainly includes selecting and grading what is to be taught. A process of selection must be undertaken since learning the whole system of a foreign language is neither possible nor necessary. Selection involves two subprocesses: First, the restriction of the language to a particular dialect and register; and second, the selection from within the register of the items that are to be taught according to criteria such as frequency of occurrence, learnability and classroom needs The whole process of selection must be applied at all levels of language, such as phonology, grammar, lexis, contexts (semantic and cultural). After a 1ist of language items have been selected, the next process is to put them into the most appropriate order for practical teaching purposes. This process is often referred to as grading or sequencing.

  评论这张
 
阅读(323)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017