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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

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Keys to Model Test Ten  

2011-08-07 23:35:25|  分类: 语言学习试题与参 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I.  1.  Integrative motivation refers to the aim of a second language learner to integrate himself or herself of which the second language community.

2. The critical period is an early period of one’s life extending to the age of puberty, during which the human brain is most ready to acquire language naturally and effortlessly, a period that coincides with the period of brain lateralization for language functions.

3.  The London School has a tradition of laying stress on the functions of language and attaching great importance to contexts of situation and the system aspect of language. It is these features that have made this school of thought known as systemic linguistics and functional linguistics. It is an important and admirable part of the London School tradition to believe that different types of linguistics description may be appropriate for different purposes.

 

4.  Construal is the ability to conceive and portray the same situation In alternate ways through specificity , different mental scanning , directionality , vantage point , figure 一ground segregation etc .

 5.  Contrastive Analysis refers to a comparative procedure used to establish linguistic differences between two languages so as to predict learning difficulties caused by interference from the learner’s first language and prepare the type of teaching materials that will reduce the effects of interference.

6.  Language transfer can be positive or negative. Negative transfer occurs when a first language pattern different from the counterpart pattern of the target language. Negative transfer, a process more commonly known as interference, was once believed to be the major source of difficulties experienced and errors made by second language learners on the ground that where differences existed between L1 and L2, the student’s L1 knowledge would interfere with the L2 learning.

7.  A series of systematic sound change in the history of English that involved seven long vowels and consequently led to one of the major discrepancies between English pronunciation and its spelling system.

8. The cohort model is a supposed doctrine dealing with the spoken word recognition postulated by Marslen-Wilson and Welsh in 1 990 . It is suggested that the first few phonemes of a spoken word activate a set or cohort of word candidates that are consistent with the input. These candidates compete with one another for activation. As more acoustic input is analyzed, candidates that are no longer consistent with the input drop out of the set. This process continues until only one word candidate matches the input; the best fitting word may be chosen if no single candidate is a clear winner.

9.  It means that a speaker does not have to follow a certain variety or dialect all the time but that he can turn from the standard language to the sub-standard one, from one dialect to another, from one accent to another, from formality to informality, from politeness to impoliteness, even from one language to another language in a bilingual or multilingual community.

   10.  It is one of language functions. As a means of intrapersonal communication, language facilitates thinking, speech behavior and action for the individual. For example, a word can function as the name of a concept and therefore, can be used as a stimulus for evoking and manipulating a concept. Evidently, people can “think” better when they have well-learned concepts and the names for these concepts.

 

II.  1.T  2.F  3.T  4.T  5.T  6.T  7.T  8.T   9.T   10.F  

III. 1.sound;  2.structural;  3.linguistics, semantics;  4. foreign;  5. idiolect;  6.contextualism;  7.hemispheres;  8.accent; 9.relational; 10.case;

IV. 1.C 2.B  3.D  4.A  5.B  6.D  7.C  8.C  9.B  10.A  11.B  12.B  13.C  14.B  15.C  16.C  17.C  18.A  19.B  20.A

V. 1. Bilingualism refers to a linguistic situation in which two standard languages are used in a speech community; whereas in a diglossic community, two varieties of language are used for different situations, one being more standard and higher, and used for more formal matters, and the other less prestigious, and used for colloquial situations.

     2.  Vowels differ from each other in terms of (1) the height of the tongue raising (high, mid, low); (2)the position of the highest part of the tongue (front, central, back); (3) the degree of lip rounding ( rounded, unrounded); (4) the position of the soft palate ( oral, nasal) at the time of their production; (5) their length( long, short); (6) the steadiness of their quality (pure, gliding).

      3.  (1) Rewrite:  If your messenger does not find him there.

     Prior to Shakespere’s time, a negative sentence could be formed by merely adding “not” at the end an affirmative sentence. However, after the sixteenth century the grammar of English had changed so that “not” appeared before main verbs and only auxiliary verbs had to be used in negation.

     (2) Rewrite:  And you never gave me a child.

       Old English syntax contained a double-negation rule, which would negate a sentence with both negators of “ne” (not) and “n?fre” (never).

     (3). Rewtite: He saw him.

     Old English had an elaborate system of case marking through overt morphological changes, which, consequently allowed its word order to be somewhat variable than that of Modern English. Because modern English has a much weaker case marking system, its sentence have to follow a basic order of SVO (subject+verb+object). In Old English, however, word order included SVO, VSO, SOV and OSV.

     4.    (1) Structure factors in comprehension. Comprehension of written and spoken language can be difficult because it is not always easy to identify the constituents (phrase) of a sentence and the ways in which they relate to one another. Psycholinguists have proposed principles interpreting sentence comprehension with respect to the grammatical constraints. The most popular principles is Minimal attachment which defines “structurally simpler”, and it claims that structural simplicity guides all initial analyses in sentence comprehension. In this view, the sentence processor a single analyses of a sentence and attempts to interpret it. The first analyses is the one that requires the fewest applications of grammatical rules to attach each incoming word into the structure being built; it id the automatic consequence of an effort to get some analysis constructed as soon as possible.

        (2) Lexical factors in comprehension. Psycholinguists have proposed that the human sentence processor is primary guided by information about specific words that is stored in the lexical. In the sentences like The salesman glanced at a/the customer with suspicion/ripped jeans, the prepositional phrases with suspicion or with ripped jeans could modify either the verb glance or the noun customer.

 

5.  Lakeoff and Johnson classify conceptual metaphors into three categories: ontological metaphors, structural metaphors and orientational metaphors.

       Ontological metaphors mean that human experiences with physical objects provide the basis for ways of viewing events, activities, emotions, ideas, etc., as entities and substances. Ontological metaphors can serve various purposes, By ontological metaphors we give bounded surfaces to less clearly discreet entities (mountains hedges, street corners)d categories events, actions and states as substances. In ontological metaphors it is our experiences of interacting with physical bounded bodies which provide the basis for categorizing events, activities, ideas etc., as entities and substances.

       Structural metaphors play the most important role because they allow us to go beyond orientation and referring and give us the possibility to structure one concept according to another. This means that structural metaphors are grounded in our experience. Structural metaphors imply how one concept is metaphorically structuring one concept in terms of another.

       Orientational metaphors give a concept a spatial orientation. They are characterized not so much by structuring one concept in terms of another, but by a co0occurrence in our experiential basis, which link together the two parts of the metaphor. The link verb “is”, part of the metaphor, should be seen as the link of two different co-occurring experiences. For example, MORE IS UP. This metaphor is grounded in the co-occurrence of the two different kinds of substance rise. Orientational metaphors are based on human physical and cultural experience. For example, in some cultures the future is in front of us, whereas in others it is in back of us. Now let us study some orientational metaphors and give a brief hint about how each metaphorical concept might have arisen from human physical and cultural experience.   http://lxc66188.blog.163.com/blog/static/9176498620091020557346/

 

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