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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Thesis Sample 2  

2011-09-19 00:21:36|  分类: 论文写作 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                                           分析《雾都孤儿》的批判现实主义手法

 

                                                   THE STYLE OF CRITICAL REALISM IN OLIVER TWIST

 

摘要

 

在英国文学史上,十九世纪是群星灿烂的小说鼎盛时代。在这些伟大的小说家中,查尔斯?约翰?赫芬姆?狄更斯(Charles John Huffam Dickens,1812年2月7日-1870年6月9日)则是一颗最为光彩照人的明星。从小饱尝人间艰辛的狄更斯,最同情劳苦人民和孤苦无依的孩子。狄更斯是高产作家,他凭借勤奋和天赋创作出一大批经典著作。他又是一位幽默大师,常常用妙趣横生的语言在浪漫和现实中讲述人间真相,以至于马克思也不得不赞叹地称他为“杰出的小说家”。狄更斯多层面、多角度地叙写英国时代与社会的现实情况,同时,开拓了现实主义语言技巧的新空间,实现了超越与构建并进的关的再度创造,为现实主义文学的继续发展提供了启示。他的大部分的作品主题是通过描述穷人和工人阶级的苦难生活批评在资本主义社会中存在的社会腐败和问题。在《雾都孤儿》中狄更斯创造了代表各个阶级以及不同社会地位的典型人物,显示了狄更斯对资本主义压迫着的憎恶以及对社会底层人物的同情。该论文分析狄更斯如何运用他丰富的想象力,对典型的刻画等批判现实主义手法来批判英国当时资本主义社会暴露出来的种种弊端。

关键词:查尔斯狄更斯; 批判现实主义; 社会黑暗; 奥利弗?特维斯特

 

ABSTRACT

 

In the history of English literature, nineteenth century is a peak time when many excellent writers appeared. Among them was Charles John Huffman Dickens,(1812-2-7 to 1870-6-9) is the most shiny star. He had great sympathy to the children who were lonely and hopeless, as he had a miserable childhood. He created countless of masterpieces by his diligent and talent. He is a master of humor, often with fun language and reality in the romantic way telling the truth of social reality. Marx also praised him as "distinguished novelist." Dickens used multi-level, multi-angle decipition about the facts of capitalist society while developing the realism language skills into new space, keeping abreast of the relevant re-building and creation and providing inspiration for the continued development of realistic literature. Charles Dickens is a prominent master of English Critical Realism novelists in Victorian age. The main theme of his works is criticizing the social corruptions and social problems existing in capitalist society through describing the sufferings, revealing life of the poor and working class. In Oliver Twist, Dickens created typical characters who represented each class or different social position showing his sympathy to the poor and his antipathy to the oppressors. Oliver Twist, a poor, innocent orphan boy, stands out in this story as the main character but it is the supporting characters that allow this novel of much content to develop a much more satisfying and believable theme. The paper makes a analysis of Dickens' great imagination and style of Critical Realism in Oliver Twist so as to help understand how the master criticize the social evils at that time. Oliver Twist enhanced and strengthened Dickens' reputation and contains classic Dickensian themes - grinding poverty, desperation, fear, temptation and the eventual triumph of good in the face of great adversity.

 

KEY WORD: Charles Dickens; Critical Realism; social darkness; Oliver Twist

 

 

 

                                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………...ii

ABSTRACT IN CHINESE…………………………………………………………...iii

ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH………………………………………………..………….iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….………..v

CHAPTER 1

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………1

CHAPTER 2 

Life experience of Charles Dickens and Oliver Twist

2.1 Life experience of Charles Dickens…………………………………………3

2.2 Background information of Oliver Twist………………………………….…4

2.3 The synopsis of Oliver Twist………………………………….......................5

CHAPTER 3 

The style of Critical Realism in Oliver Twist

3.1 The rise of Critical Realism………………………………........................... 8

3.2 The analysis of characters in Oliver Twist………………….…..….......…...10

3.3 The analysis of Dickens’ writing techniques..................................................14

         3.3.1 Exaggeration......................................................................................14

         3.3.2 Satire..................................................................................................16

         3.3.3 Symbolism.........................................................................................16

    3.4 The significance of the style of Critical Realism in Oliver Twist..................18

CHAPTER 4 

Comparision with other critical realists

    4.1 Jane Austen.....................................……………………..………........…….19

    4.2 Thomas Hardy…………………………...............................…......…..…….21

CHAPTER 5 

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………22

Bibliography ..……………………………………….…………………………….....24

   1. Works in English……………………………………………………………....24

   2. Works in Chinese……………………………………………………………....25

3 ElectronicSources……………………………….………...................................25

 

                                                                                         CHAPTER  1

                                                                                          Introduction

 

In nineteenth century of England, with the development of capitalism, the neglect aspects of capitalism appeared at the same time. On that situation, writers, including poets, novelists and essayists, stood out and fought against the social evils with their pen. They not only inherited the fine tradition of eighteenth century realism, but also the early nineteenth century romanticism. By exposing the social injustice and the vices of the upper class, they put their hearts into depicting the miserable existing of the poor. They were strongly critical of the social realities of their time and they had weakness as well. As they didn't propose to fight against the capitalism' abuses in a violent way. That's the limitation of the literature. Even though they were not revolutionary people who took action into overthrowing the sick social rules and establishing a new social system for the majority of common people's benefits, the Critical Realism they held was a great achievement. In Oliver Twist, Dickens mixes grim realism, and merciless satire as a way to describe the effects of industrialism on 19th-century England and to criticise the harsh new Poor Laws. Oliver, an innocent child, is trapped in a world where his only options seem to be the workhouse, Fagin's thieves, a prison or an early grave. From this unpromising industrial/institutional setting, however, a fairy tale also emerges: In the midst of corruption and degradation, the essentially passive Oliver remains pure-hearted; he steers away from evil when

 those around him give in to it; and, in proper fairy-tale fashion, he eventually receives his reward—leaving for a peaceful life in the country, surrounded by kind friends. On the way to this happy ending, Dickens explores the kind of life an orphan, outcast boy could expect to lead in 1830s London.

 

 

                                                                                    CHAPTER  2

                                                     Life experience of Charles Dickens and Oliver Twist

 

2.1 Life experience of Charles Dickens

Among the English literary works in nineteenth century, novel had become the world-wide read literary genre and novelists in this period carried the duty of criticizing the social problems and protecting common people's rights. As one of the greatest critical realists in Victorian age, Dickens gave us a most vivid picture of everyday life and the ordinary people of his time. When Dickens was a child, his life was full of misfortunes. In order to make a living, he worked in a black factory where he suffered a lot. This kind of experience made him give sympathy to the poor. He knew those kinds of feeling and of course he could share the solitary chilid's pain, for he bewildered in those years when he had labored hopelessly in the blacking--warehouse. The period of time was so bitter and galling to the sensitive boy that many years later, when he was successful, he could not look back upon it without tears in his eyes. Maybe it was the main reason that why he took much more attention to common people' lives and their feelings. As he grew up, he worked as a reporter and learned much knowledge of the political life of England at that time. As the result of his ability to notice things of London life, he published a volume of stories and sketches of London street scenes. His first novel Pickwick Papers was published in 1837 and it established his reputation as a important writer of that time. During the rest of his life, he created many masterpieces insisting of novels, volumes of stories and essays which were popular home and abroad. In his very early literary period, Dickens attacked some specific evils in victorian England: debtors prison, workhouse, Yorkshire schools, capital punishment and so on. With the reactionary forces of the Middle class who were running more rampant, Dickens was more alive to the social reality and become more critical. Now, his optimistic spirit was replaced by strong feelings of depression and resentment. The whole period was characterized by the change and development of the great novelist artistic style.

2.2 Background information of Oliver Twist

Oliver Twist is Dickens' second novel, which marks the beginning of Dickens' literary life. It is the masterpiece of Dickens and is a famous world-wide literary work which is familiar to chinese readers generation by generation. As the capitalism getting the ruling power, weakness of the capital system was exposed clearly. The living condition of the common people was getting bad to worse. All the tragedy and social darkness seems to be taken up the whole country. In Oliver Twist, Dickens created orphan named Oliver Twist as dramatis personae, using his life and experience as a clue, mercilessly exposing the tragic life of the poor in London, breaking the love and mercy mask on the capitalist and criticizing the social darkness. The author' art of language, his characterization, his experience and his critical consciousness, especially his unique way of writing style had all been commended and discussed throughly. Zhang Hongyu in Charles Dickens' narrative art criticized that:'' one important reason why Charles Dickens enjoys world-wide reputation as a novelist is his unique writing style.'' Pan Mingyuan in Vitality of Oliver Twist said that:'' Oliver Twist shocked the whole England. It related to various strata of society, and well accept by the common people, it also accelerate the opposition new Poor Law''. In modern time, the splendid part of chapter two in Oliver Twist has been cited by various English text books for education.

2.3 The synopsis of Oliver Twist

Oliver Twist is born in a workhouse in a provincial town. His mother has been found very sick in the street, and she gives birth to Oliver just before she dies. Oliver is raised under the care of Mrs. Mann and the beadle Mr. Bumble in the workhouse. When it falls to Oliver’s lot to ask for more food on behalf of all the starving children in the workhouse, he is trashed, and then apprenticed to an undertaker, Mr. Sowerberry. Another apprentice of Mr. Rowanberry’s, Noah Claypole insults Oliver’s dead mother and the small and frail Oliver attacks him. However, Oliver is punished severely, and he runs away to London. Here Jack Dawkins or the Artful Dodger picks him up as he is called. The Artful Dodger is a member of the Jew Fagin’s gang of boys. Fagin has trained the boys to become pickpockets. The Artful Dodger takes Oliver to Fagin’s den in the London slums, and Oliver, who innocently does not understand that he is among criminals, becomes one of Fagin’s boys.

  Sent out with The Artful Dodger and another boy on a pickpocket expedition, Oliver is so shocked when he realizes what is going on that he, not the two other boys is caught. Fortunately, the victim of the thieves, the old benevolent gentleman, Mr. Brownlow rescues Oliver from arrest and brings him to his house, where the housekeeper, Mrs. Bedwin nurses him back to life after he had fallen sick, and for the first time in his life he is happy.

  However, with the help of the brutal murderer Bill Sikes and the prostitute Nancy, Fagin kidnaps Oliver. Fagin is prompted to do this by the mysterious Mr. Monks. Oliver is taken along on a burglary expedition in the country. The thieves are discovered in the house of Mrs. Maylie and her adopted niece, Rose, and Oliver is shot and wounded. Sikes escapes. Rose and Mrs. Maylie nurse the wounded Oliver. When he tells them his story they believe him, and he settles with them. While living with Rose and Mrs. Maylie Oliver one day sees Fagin and Monks looking at him through a window. Nancy discovers that Monks is plotting against Oliver for some reason, bribing Fagin to corrupt his innocence. Nancy also learns that there is some kind of connection between Rose and Oliver; but after having told Rose’s adviser and friend Dr. Losberne about it on the steps of London Bridge, she is discovered by Noah Claypole, who in the meantime has become a member of Fagin’s gang, and Sikes murders her. On his frantic flight away from the crime Sikes accidentally and dramatically hangs himself. Fagin and the rest of the gang are arrested. Fagin is executed after Oliver has visited him in the condemned cell in Newgate Prison. The Artful Dodger is transported after a court scene in which he eloquently defends himself and his class.

  Mr. Brownlow discloses Monks' plot against Oliver. Monks is Oliver’s half-brother seeking all of the inheritance for him. Oliver’s father will state that he will leave money to Oliver on the condition that his reputation is clean. Oliver’s dead mother and Rose were sisters. Monks receives his share of the inheritance and goes away to America. He dies in prison there, and Mr. Brownlow adopts Oliver

 

                                                                                CHAPTER 3

                                                                   Critical Realism in Oliver Twist

 

3.1 The rise of Critical Realism

Critical Realism is a term applied to the realistic fiction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It refers to the tendency of writers and intellectuals in the period between 1875 and 1920to apply methods of realistic fiction to the criticism of society and the examination of social issues. During this period of tense class struggle appeared a new literary trend-critical realism of the 19th century which flourished in the forties and in the early fifties. The critical realists described with much vividness and great artistic skill the chief traits of the English society and criticized the capitalist system from a democratic viewpoint. The greatest English realist of the time was Charles Dickens. With striking force and truthfulness, he creates pictures of bourgeois civilization, describing the misery and sufferings of the common people. Another critical realist, William Makepeace Thackeray’s ,was a no class severe exposer of contemporary society. Thackeray’s, novels are mainly a satirical description of the upper class of society. The method of critical realism were further adopted by such writers as Charlotte and Emily Bronte, and Elizabeth Gaskell. In the fifties and sixties the realistic novel entered a stage of decline. George Eliot described the life of the labouring people and criticized the privileged classes, but the power of exposure became much weaker in her work. The significance of her work lies rather in the description of the pettiness and stagnancy of English old-style life.

  The English critical realists of the 19th century not only gave a satirical description of the bourgeoisie and all the ruling classes, but also showed profound sympathy for the common people. In their best works, the greed and hypocrisy of the upper class are contrasted with the honesty and good-heartedn ess of the obscure "simple people" of the lower classes. Hence the use of humour and satire in the English realistic novels of the 19th century. Humorous scenes may attend the actions of the positive characters, but this humour is coulored with lyricism and serves to stress the fine qualities of such characters. At the same time, bitter satire and funny is used to expose the seamy side of the bourgeois society. Through the sketches of various negative characters given birth to by the capitalist system, critical realism reveals the corrupting influence of the rule of cash upon human nature. Here lies the root of the democratic and humanistic character of the critical realism of the 19th century. But the critical realists did not find a way to destroy social evils. They did not realize the necessity of changing the bourgeois society. They were unable to find a good solution to the social contradictions. The chief tendency in their workes is not of revolution but rather of reformism. They often start with a powerful exposure of the ugliness of the bourgeois world, merely to close in a much too coincidental happy ending or an impotent compromise. Here we see at once the strength and the weakness of critical realism.  Like the realists of the 18th century, the 19th century critical realists made use of the broad canvas of the novel for full and detailed representations of social and political events, and of the fate of individuals and of whole social classes. However, the realistic novels of the 19th century went a step further than those of the 18th century in that they not only pictured the conflicts between separate individuals who stood for definite social class, but also showed the broad social conflicts over and above the fate of mere individuals. With their artistic representation of important social movements such as Chartism and their vivid description of dramatic conflicts of the time, the 19th century, realistic novels become "the epic of the bourgeois society". And the civilized world has confirmed their verdict in a bad epigram which is has pinned on that class, that it is service to its social superiors and despotic to its inferiors”.

3.2 The analysis of characters in Oliver Twist

Oliver was a innocent and brave orphan boy. He worked at the workhouse as a younger boy and suffered a lot. Dickens criticizes the upper class and the authorities who treated the labour, poor and low class very badly. From the words, we can know clearly.

      He rose from the table;and advancing to the master, basin

      And spoon in hand, and said: somewhat alarmed at his own temerity;

      ‘Please, Sir, I want some more.’

      ‘What!’ said the master at length, in a faint voice.

      ‘Please, Sir,’ replied Oliver, ‘I want some more.’

       The master aimed a blow at Oliver’s head with

       The ladle; pinioned him in his arms; and shrieked

       aloud for the beadle.

       ‘For more!’ said Mr.Limbkins. ‘Compose yourself,

       Bumble, and answer me distinctly

       Do I understand that he asked for more, after he had

       Eaten the supper allotted by the dietary?’

       (Charles Dickens, 1997:10)

For the kind, Oliver, who knowns what should be done and what should not be done refuses to be a thief. Oliver is thrown into a world full of poverty and crime. Though suffer enormous pain, such as hunger, thirst, beating and abuse , he never loses his good nature, being kind and gentle to everyone. Even when he learns what he has suffered is arranged by Monks, he still agrees to share the will with Monks. In this way, people are impressed deeply by the image of a poor but kind orphan and can not help tenderly loving this child. “Dickens has the ideal response to the things”. Charles can see the future from this role.

Fagin, the master mind among the criminals, is as ugly in appearance as he is disgusting in feature . He is not a figure of unmixed simplicity. In Fagin, Dickens has attempted to describe a character displaying some of the complexities of normal human nature. When he is angry , the old man may conform to savage rage, but on ordinary occasions he is  satisfied  in a critical humor, which earns him the nickname of "the merry old gentleman"

Fagin is outstanding among the thieves. For money, he makes a lot of younger people steal, or rob. From the words, we can know Fagin very clearly.

‘Well,’ said the Jew, glancing slyly at Oliver, and addressing

himself to the Dodger,‘I hope you’ve been at work this morning, my dears?’

‘Hard, replied the Dodger.

‘As Nails,’ added Charley Bates.

‘Good boys, good boys! Said the Jew. ‘What have you got, Dodger?’

‘A couple of pocket-books,’ replied that young gentleman.

‘Lined?’ inquired the Jew, with eagerness.

‘Pretty well,’ replied the Dodger, producing two pocket-books:

one green: and the other red.

‘Very, indeed, sir,’ said Oliver. At which Mr.Charles Bates laughed

uproariously; very much to the amazement of Oliver, who saw

nothing to laugh at, in anything thathad passed.

‘And what have you got, my dear?’ said Fagin to Char ley Bates.

‘Shall us, Oliver, eh? Ha! Ha! Ha!

‘If you please, sir,’ said Oliver.

‘You’d like to be able to make pocket-handkerchiefs as easy as

Charley Bates, wouldn’t you, my dear? said Jew.        

(Charles Dickens,1997:10)

When not caught off guard, Fagin can exercise extraordinary self-control, even under extreme stress. So, after recovering from the original  shock produced by Nancy's traffic with the enemy, he is able skillfully to incite Sikes to murder. Meanwhile, the old demon commands himself sufficiently to caution Sikes against excessive violence-always having in mind the danger of a careless move.

Fagin’s den is both a hell and a place of refuge. “It is ….absolutely shut off from the outside word, but it is also a parody, at least, of a home, of a home, that place where one lives safely….Fagin’s den ”(Charles Dickens,1976:120) It is a “snug retreat,” and inside its walls we find a society leagued for common protection against the hostility of the outside world.

There is some indication that there is still a few of human feelings left in Fagin's evil nature. On several occasions, he betrays a trace of kindliness toward Oliver. On the night that he makes Oliver into the Chertsey expedition, the old man checks his impulse to disrupt the persecuted child' sleep. The next day he seriously implores Oliver to notice Sikes unquestioningly, for his own safety. Yet, whatever traces of a better sort that may linger in Fagin's evil spirit are not very convincing. From this character, Charles believes that humanity is good at last. Which is the Charles’s hope of the future.

Dickens employs polarised sets of characters to explore various dual themes throughout the novel; Mr. Brownlow and Fagin, for example, personify 'Good vs. Evil'. Dickens also juxtaposes honest, law-abiding characters such as Oliver himself with those who, like the Artful Dodger, seem more comfortable on the wrong side of the law. 'Crime and Punishment' is another important pair of themes, as is 'Sin and Redemption': Dickens describes criminal acts ranging from picking pockets to murder (suggesting that this sort of thing went on continually in 1830's London) only to hand out punishments with a liberal hand at the end. Most obviously, he shows Bill Sikes hounded to death by a mob for his brutal acts, and sends Fagin to cower in the condemned cell, sentenced to death by due process. Neither character achieves redemption; Sikes dies trying to run away from his guilt, and on his last night alive, the terrified Fagin refuses to see a rabbi or to pray, instead asking Oliver to help him escape. Nancy, by contrast, redeems herself at the cost of her own life, and dies in a prayerful pose.

Nancy is also one of the few characters in Oliver Twist to display much ambivalence. Although she is a full-fledged criminal, indoctrinated and trained by Fagin since childhood, she retains enough empathy to repent her role in Oliver's kidnapping, and to take steps to try to atone. As one of Fagin's victims, corrupted but not yet morally dead, she gives eloquent voice to the horrors of the old man's little criminal empire. She wants to save Oliver from a similar fate; at the same time, she recoils from the idea of turning traitor, especially to Bill Sikes, whom she loves. When he was later criticised for giving a "thieving, whoring slut of the streets" such an unaccountable reversal of character, Dickens ascribed her change of heart to "the last fair drop of water at the bottom of a dried-up, weed-choked well"

3.3 The analysis of Dickens’ writing techniques

3.3.1 Exaggeration

Dickens is frequently charged with offering a view of the world that does violence to reality. A novelist, however, communicates his interpretation of life through the medium of fiction. His accomplishment grows out of combination of experience and imagination. In judging a writer’s success, we have to grant his purposes and goals. Dickens firmly maintains that what is got over the devil’s back is spent under his devil. This belief takes effects on his purpose in Oliver Twist and then impulses his grotesque and peculiar talent for exaggeration. He knows how to attract readers.

I wish some well-fed philosopher, whose meat and drink

turn to gall within him; whose blood is ice, whose heart

is iron;could have seen Oliver Twist clutching at the dainty

viands that the dog dad neglected. I wish he could have 

witnessed the horrible avidity with which Oliver tore the

bits asunder with all the ferocity of famite. There is only

one thing I should life better; )and that would be to see the

Philosopher making the same sort of meal himself, with the

same,relish.(CharleDickens,1997:25)                            

If he just uses simple words to describe this story, nobody will reach an agreement with him and the plot will be too undistinguished to be worth reading. He takes pains to utilize the tragic intensity with care and exagge ration, which arouses his readers’ tenderness and sympathetic response to Oliver and strong resent on the devil.

3.3.2 Satire

Charles Dickens is a famous writer in English history, who likes to use the different styles to write .Especially, he is good at using the satire. In the Oliver Twist which has a lot of caricatures to satire the thieves and the authorities lived in corruption and absurdity. From words, we clearly know the satire.

‘You do not happen to know any good for him, do you?’

 said Mr.Grimwing, caustiedly; after an attentive perusal

of Mr.Bumble’s features.(Charles Dickens,1997:107)

This words satires Fagin is a very greedy old Jew.Now we clearly know the satire from the next words:The board, in imitation of so wise and salutary an example, took counsel together on the expediency of shipping off Oliver Twist, in some small trading vessel bound to a good unhealthy poor.

3.3.3 Symbolism

Dickens makes considerable use of symbolism. The many symbols Oliver faces are primarily good versus evil, with evil continually trying to corrupt and exploit good, but good winning out in the end. The "merry old gentleman" Fagin, for example, has satanic characteristics: he is a veteran corrupter of young boys who presides over his own corner of the criminal world; he makes his first appearance standing over a fire holding a toasting-fork; and he refuses to pray on the night before his execution. The London slums, too, have a suffocating, infernal aspect; the dark deeds and dark passions are concretely characterised by dim rooms, and pitch-black nights, while the governing mood of terror and brutality may be identified with uncommonly cold weather. In contrast, the countryside where the Maylies take Oliver is a pastoral heaven.

Food is another important symbol; Oliver's odyssey begins with a simple request for more gruel, and Mr. Bumble's shocked exclamation, represents he may be after more than just gruel. Chapter 8—which contains the last mention of food in the form of Fagin's dinner—marks the first time Oliver eats his share and represents the transformation in his life that occurs after he joins Fagin's gang.

The novel is also shot through with a related motif, obesity, which calls attention to the stark injustice of Oliver's world. When the half-starved child dares to ask for more, the men who punish him are fat. It is interesting to observe the large number of characters who are overweight.

Toward the end of the novel, the gaze of knowing eyes becomes a potent symbol. For years, Fagin avoids daylight, crowds, and open spaces, concealing himself in a dark lair most of the time: when his luck runs out at last, he squirms in the "living light" of too many eyes as he stands in the dock, awaiting sentence. After Sikes kills Nancy, he flees into the countryside but is unable to escape the memory of her dead eyes. Charley Bates turns his back on crime when he sees the murderous cruelty of the man who has been held up to him as a model.

Nancy’s decision to meet Brownlow and Rose on London Bridge reveals the symbolic aspect of this bridge in Oliver Twist. Bridges exist to link two places that would otherwise be separated by an uncrossable void. The meeting on London Bridge represents the collision of two worlds unlikely ever to come into contact—the idyllic world of Brownlow and Rose, and the atmosphere of degradation in which Nancy lives. On the bridge, Nancy is given the chance to cross over to the better way of life that the others represent, but she rejects that opportunity, and by the time the three have all left the bridge, that possibility has vanished forever.

When Rose gives Nancy her handkerchief, and when Nancy holds it up as she dies, Nancy has gone over to the "good" side against the thieves. Her position on the ground is as if she is in prayer, this showing her godly or good position.

3.4 The significance of the style of Critical Realism in Oliver Twist

Oliver Twist is absolutely a good example of critical realism in English literature. He also encourages those poor people who were exploited to stand up, fight against the authorities and government. Charles Dickes depicts a vivid picture of 19th English society through the little hero’s life experiences. With exaggeration and satire, he exposes the evil nature of money-oriented people.

 

                                                                                    CHAPTER 4

                                                               Comparision with other critical realists

 

4.1 Jane Austen

  Jane Austen plays a transitional role in the English literature from the 18th neoclassicism to the 19th romanticism. Trained in the enlightening tradition, she displays the feeling moderately; influenced by the coming romanticism, she satirizes the society in comedy. So it might be an error to say that Jane Austen is incapable of sentiment, because nobady can create a true comedy of life without romance and passion that is even in the humblest existence. Her transitional role also displays in her writing style. That is to say, on the one hand, she inherited some characteristics of the neoclassicism in style and painted the world she knew; so it is foolish to expect from her the high-flown sentiment; but on the other hand, to some degree, her style is also different from the previous enlightening writers, like Fielding, just as she herself claimed that she not only painted the world she lived in with fidelity, but also with sympathy; with a sensitive sense of its blemishes, but also with a true insight into its redeeming virtues. So her characters evolve themselves without any great dramatic episodes. And although her language sparkles with wit and irony, they are moderate. Her novel Pride and Prejudice provides a good example for this point.

The works of Jane Austen,delightful andofound are part of the supreme achievements of English literature. With trenchant observation in meticulous detail, she presents the quiet,day-to-day life of the upper-middle-class English. Her characteristic theme is that maturity is achieved through the loss of illusions. Faults of character displayed by the people of her novels are corrected when,through tribulation, lessons are learned. Even the most minor characters are vividly particularized in Austen's lucid style. All these show a mind of the shrewdest intelligence adapting the available traditions deepening the resources of art with consummate craftsmanship. Because of her sensitivity to universal patterns of human behavior,Jane Austen has brought the English novels,as an art form,to its maturity, she has been regarded by many critics as one of the greatest of all novelists.

4.2 Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy is one of the greatest literary figures of the 19th century. His literary genius is apparent in his poems and novels. Some of his best works include The Return of the Native, The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the D’ Urbervilles and Jude, the Obscure. His novels had an indelible impact during his time and also till date many of his novels inspire theatre productions as well as films. His novels, which reflect the Victorian society with all its idiosyncrasies, were perceived as irreligious. Nevertheless, current scholars believe Hardy to be one of the greatest tragic novelists of English literature.

Hardy lived and wrote in a time of difficult social change, when England was making its slow and painful transition from an old-fashioned, agricultural nation to a modern, industrial one. Businessmen and entrepreneurs, or “new money,” joined the ranks of the social elite, as some families of the ancient aristocracy, or “old money,” faded into obscurity. Tess’s family in Tess of the d’Urbervilles illustrates this change, as Tess’s parents, the Durbeyfields, lose themselves in the fantasy of belonging to an ancient and aristocratic family, the d’Urbervilles. Hardy’s novel strongly suggests that such a family history is not only meaningless but also utterly undesirable. Hardy’s views on the subject were appalling to conservative and status-conscious British readers, and Tess of the d’Urbervilles was met in England with wide controversy.

 

                                                                                 CHAPTER 5

                                                                                  Conclusion

 

 

Critical realism is presently most commonly associated with the work of Roy Bhaskar. Bhaskar developed a general philosophy of science that he described as transcendental realism, and a special philosophy of the human sciences that he called critical naturalism. The two terms were elided by other authors to form the umbrella term critical realism.

Transcendental realism attempts to establish that in order for scientific investigation to take place, the object of that investigation must have real, manipulable, internal mechanisms that can be actualised to produce particular outcomes. This is what we do when we conduct experiments. This stands in contrast to empiricist scientists' claim that all scientists can do is observe the relationship between cause and effect. Whilst empiricism, and positivism more generally, locate causal relationships at the level of events, Critical Realism locates them at the level of the generative mechanism, arguing that causal relationships are irreducible to empirical constant conjunctions of David Hume's doctrine; in other words, a constant conjunctive relationship between events is neither sufficient nor even necessary to establish a causal relationship.

Charles Dickens was the greatest critical realism writer. His novel has depicted gradually sharp contradiction of labor and capital of United Kingdom capitalist society, and revealed miserable destiny of lower class people and the hypocrisy of the bourgeoisie. In Oliver Twist, he shows the hypocritical, avaricious, and cruel side of the upper class and the bourgeoisie. He puts so deep sympathy to the low class, especially women and children. Meanwhile, he sings the praises of truth, goodness and beauty in human nature with idealism and Romanism and lofty sentiments. He longs for more rational society and finer life.

 

 

                                                                             References

 

1.   Donovan, Frank. The Children of Charles Dickens. London: Leslie Frewin, 1968, pp. 61–62.

2.   Dunn, Richard J.. Oliver Twist: Whole Heart and Soul (Twayne's Masterwork Series No. 118). New York: Macmillan, p. 37.

3.   Oliver Twist, Or, The Parish Boy's Progress By Charles Dickens, Contributor Philip Horne, Published by Penguin Classics, 2003, pg 486. .

4.   Ackroyd, Peter, Dickens, London, Sinclair-Stevenson, 1990, pg 216.   

5.   Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens (Paul Schlicke, Editor). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 141.

6.   Miller, J. Hillis. "The Dark World of Oliver Twist" in Charles Dickens (Harold Bloom, editor), New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987, p. 35

7.   Walder, Dennis, "Oliver Twist and Charity" in Oliver Twist: a Norton Critical Edition (Fred Kaplan, Editor). New York: W.W. Norton, 1993, pp. 515-525

8.   Ashley, Leonard. What's in a name?: Everything you wanted to know. Genealogical Publishing, 1989, p. 200.

9.   Charles Dickens,Oliver Twist 1997

 

参考文献

 

1.多诺万*弗兰克《查尔斯*狄更斯的童年》 伦敦:莱斯利弗雷温,1968年
       2. 邓恩*理查德《雾都孤儿:心脏和灵魂》(Twayne名著系列)纽约:麦克米伦
       3. 《雾都孤儿》或者,《查尔斯*狄更斯对男孩的发展的描述》,菲利普霍恩 2003年出版。
       4. 《阿克罗伊德,彼得,狄更斯,伦敦》 辛克莱尔*史蒂文森,1990年
       5 .《牛津读者的伴侣》牛津大学出版社,1999年
       6. 《查尔斯狄更斯描写“奥利弗的黑暗世界”》 米勒*希利斯 切尔西楼出版社,
       7.《雾都孤儿和慈善活动》 沃尔德*丹尼斯 W.W.诺顿,1993年
       8. 《名字的意义:你想知道的一切》阿什利*伦纳德。
       9.《雾都孤儿》查尔斯*狄更斯 1997版

 

Online References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Twist#Introduction

http://www.lunwentop.com/

http://www.benkelunwen.cn/

 

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