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甘世安

除了太阳必须在那里,其余一切皆偶然。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

英语论文写作框架  

2011-09-20 00:25:41|  分类: 论文写作 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                                                                                    Structure of a Thesis
                                                      in Linguistics, Applied linguistics and Translation Studies


                         1.  Prefatory Matter

                           The prefatory matter includes the following:  (正文前的部分)

 

                                       Declaration

                                       Title Page

                                       Abstract

                  

                     The abstract may consists of the following elements:

                               a.  A clear statement of topic and purpose;

                               b.  A description of the methodology (subjects, instruments, procedures and analyses);

                               c.  A summary of the results; and

                               d.  A conclusion of their implications.

 

                                Acknowledgments

                               Table of Contents

                                Lists of Tables and Figures


 
                           2.  Introducing the Study

                          State the problem you intend to analyze as simply as you can. Try to step back mentally and take a broad view of

                                it. How does it fit into your discipline?

 

                         Do not overestimate the reader’s familiarity with your topic. You are writing for researchers in a general area, but

                              not all of them need be specialists in your particular topic. It may help to imagine a researcher who investigates

                              a different area of your common field. This colleague of yours shares your intelligence and general

                              background but knows little of the literature or methods that apply to your specialty.

 

                         The introduction should engage your reader. A reader who loses interest in your introduction will not likely

                               rediscover it in the more specific section that follow.

 

                          This section might require several drafts for substance, style, and concision. It is a good idea to ask a non-

                                specialist to read it and to comment on its substance and style. There is an argument for writing this section—

                                or at least revising it significantly—towards the end of the thesis-writing process. Your introduction should set

                                your thesis within a context of wider meaning or more general interest that may only occur to you after

                                 extended analysis.

 

                    You should review the literature of the field. That is, you should introduce the background of or rationale for your

                         study, state how previous research relates to your study, and provide a framework within which your study was

                          carried out. You should answer the following questions, which readers will raise:

                                   1.  Where did the problem come from?

                                   2.  What is already known about this problem?

                                   3. What other methods have been tried to solve it?

 

                       You should also clarify the research purpose. To be specific,

                                     state precisely the purpose of your study,

                                     present research questions that spell out what was being investigated,

                                     and provide specific research hypotheses.


 
                               3.  Describing the Study

                                 The description of the study requires that you report on the process of obtaining the evidence for your

                                       argument. This part varies enormously from thesis to thesis, and may be omitted in theoretical theses or

                                      dissertations, but regardless of the type of thesis, you should follow one principle: it much contain enough

                                       detail so that a competent researcher can reproduce exactly what you have done by following your

                                       description. There is a good chance that this test will be applied: sometime after you have left, another

                                        researcher will want to do a similar experiment either with your gear or on a new set-up in a foreign

                                         country. Try to write for the benefit of that researcher.


 
                                 3.1  Methodology

                                    In terms of the methodology, there are four major components: subjects, instruments, procedures, and

                            analyses. The subjects refer to people, animals or things that are made to under go your treatment, experiment

                            or analysis. You should indicate their sources, characteristics, and selection process.

                                    The instruments refer to the tools or materials used to collect data. They can be questionnaires, tests or

                               interview questions; they should be included in appendices, but in the thesis, you should report on their origin,

                              content, purpose, reliability and validity. The instruments may also be special equipment (sometimes put under

                               the heading “Equipment” or “Apparatus”); you should also describe them their reliability and validity.

      

                           The procedures refer to the steps you followed in gathering data for your study. You describe the process of

                                      data collection, that is, how the instruments and equipment were used for data collection––how the study

                                 was conducted. The analyses refer to the steps you followed in analyzing the data. You report on the

                                 process you went through to find out what your data revealed about your topic. If you applied statistical

                                  procedures, this is where you report how.


 
                     3.2  Language

                              Your language here must be simple and clear. The past tense should be used for a study that has already

                                      been completed.


 
                     3.3  Theory

                                When you are reporting theoretical work that is not original, you will usually need to include sufficient material

                                      to allow the reader to understand the arguments used and their bases. Do not include the theory not 

                                       related to the work you have done.

                                When you are reporting your own theoretical work, you must include more detail, but you may consider

                                         moving lengthy analyses to appendices.

                                 Suspense is not necessary in reporting scientific and academic study: you should tell the reader where you

                                        are going before you start.


 
                          4.  Interpreting the Study

                                 In this part of the thesis, you report the results of your study and discuss their implications for your discipline.

 

                                  In the case of a primary study, you will first present a summary of the data you have collected and then

                                        present the results of the analyses of the data. These results are called research findings. They should

                                        meet two criteria: first, they should be true “findings” in the sense that they explain something others do

                                         not yet know; then, they should be findings of some value, i.e. they should explain something that can

                                           benefit others. In statistical studies, this technical summary is often presented in tables or figures for

                                         the sake of economy.

 

                                       One thing to remember is that disproving a hypothesis can be as effective as confirming one.

                                     In discussing your findings, ask these questions: What do they mean? How do they fit into the existing

                                     body of knowledge? Are they consistent with current theories? Do they contain new insights? Do they

                                        suggest new theories or mechanisms?

 

                                       Try to distance yourself from your work so as to examine it from a wider perspective. Ask yourself not

                                        only what it means in terms of the orthodoxy of your own specialty but also how other people in the field

                                         might see it. Does it have any implications that do not relate to the questions that you set out to answer?

 

                             Chapters on results and discussions are best organized by subject matter.

                                   Your abstract should state your conclusions with maximum concision. A summary of conclusions expands

                                         on this statement, developing and qualifying its contents in accordance with the significance of your

                                      various findings. It is often the case that scientific investigations yield more questions than answers. Does

                                       your work suggest any promising directions? Are there ways in which researchers could improve on your

                                          work? What are the practical implications of your work?

 

                       The conclusion chapter should be reasonably short—a few pages usually suffice. Normally, it contains three items:

                                      (1) major findings presented in non-technical terms;

                                       (2) implications for the field, i.e., expanding your thesis from its particular focus to show how

                                                it bears on wider research circles; 

                                       (3) limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.


 
                         5.  Postscriptural Matter

                                  For postscriptural matter, you may refer to relevant sections in Chapter Two. It includes:

 

                                                 References

                                                 Appendices

 

                                       Items typically appended to theses include: questionnaires, test papers, computer programs, data files,

                                               pictures, and diagrams.


 

                                                                              Tips:   a better Way to Write your Thesis

                                            Proceed from Methodology to Results and Discussion, then work on Introduction,

                                            and finally complete Prefatory Matter. (Postscriptural Matter should be prepared as you go along with

                                              the various steps of your research.)

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